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Big Bad Banks? The Winners and Losers From Bank Deregulation in the United States

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Author Info

  • Beck, T.H.L.
  • Levine, R.
  • Levkov, A.

    (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)

Abstract

We assess the impact of bank deregulation on the distribution of income in the United States. From the 1970s through the 1990s, most states removed restrictions on intrastate branching, which intensified bank competition and improved bank performance. Exploiting the cross-state, cross-time variation in the timing of branch deregulation, we find that deregulation materially tightened the distribution of income by boosting incomes in the lower part of the income distribution while having little impact on incomes above the median. The results suggest that regulatory impediment to competition among banks during the 20th century were disproportionally harmful to lower income workers.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research in its series Discussion Paper with number 2009-56.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:kubcen:200956

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Keywords: Financial Institutions; Government Policy and Regulation; Income Inequality;

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References

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  1. Yuliya Demyanyk & Charlotte Ostergaard & Bent E. Sørensen, 2007. "U.S. Banking Deregulation, Small Businesses, and Interstate Insurance of Personal Income," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(6), pages 2763-2801, December.
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  3. William Kerr & Ramana Nanda, 2006. "Democratizing Entry: Banking Deregulations, Financing Constraints, and Entrepreneurship," Harvard Business School Working Papers 07-033, Harvard Business School, revised Oct 2008.
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  7. White, Eugene Nelson, 1982. "The Political Economy of Banking Regulation, 1864–1933," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 42(01), pages 33-40, March.
  8. Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A. & Levine, R., 2007. "Finance, inequality and the poor," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125426, Tilburg University.
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  11. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2807-2833, December.
  12. Oded Galor & Joseph Zeira, 2013. "Income Distribution and Macroeconomics," Working Papers 2013-12, Brown University, Department of Economics.
  13. Demyanyk, Yuliya, 2008. "U.S. banking deregulation and self-employment: A differential impact on those in need," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 165-178.
  14. Jayaratne, Jith & Strahan, Philip E, 1998. "Entry Restrictions, Industry Evolution, and Dynamic Efficiency: Evidence from Commercial Banking," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 239-73, April.
  15. Viral V. Acharya & Jean Imbs & Jason Sturgess, 2006. "Finance and Efficiency: Do Bank Branching Regulations Matter?," Swiss Finance Institute Research Paper Series 06-36, Swiss Finance Institute.
  16. Claessens, Stijn & Perotti, Enrico, 2007. "Finance and inequality: Channels and evidence," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 748-773, December.
  17. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
  18. Michal Jerzmanowski & Malhar Nabar, 2013. "Financial Development And Wage Inequality: Theory And Evidence," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(1), pages 211-234, 01.
  19. Donald T. Savage, 1993. "Interstate banking: a status report," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Dec, pages 1075-1089.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Charles W. Calomiris & Stephen H. Haber, 2014. "Interest Groups and the Glass-Steagall Act," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 11(4), pages 14-18, 01.
  2. T. Beck & O. De Jonghe & G. Schepens, 2011. "Bank competition and stability: cross-country heterogeneity," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 11/732, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  3. Marco Pagano & Giovanni Pica, 2011. "Finance and Employment," CSEF Working Papers 283, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  4. Beck, T.H.L., 2011. "The Role of Finance in Economic Development: Benefits, Risks, and Politics," Discussion Paper 2011-141, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  5. Beck, T.H.L. & Munzele Maimbo, S. & Faye, I. & Triki, T., 2011. "Financing Africa: Through the crisis and beyond," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4758568, Tilburg University.
  6. Gunther Capelle-Blancard & Olena Havrylchyk, 2013. "Incidence of Bank Levy and Bank Market Power," Working Papers 2013-21, CEPII research center.
  7. Chava, Sudheer & Oettl, Alexander & Subramanian, Ajay & Subramanian, Krishnamurthy V., 2013. "Banking deregulation and innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 759-774.
  8. Martin Goetz, 2011. "Bank Organization, Market Structure and Risk Taking: Theory and Evidence from U.S. Commercial Banks," NFI Working Papers 2011-WP-11, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
  9. Beck, Thorsten, 2010. "Regulatory Reform After the Crisis: Opportunities and Pitfalls," CEPR Discussion Papers 7733, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Erik Gilje & Elena Loutskina & Philip E. Strahan, 2013. "Exporting Liquidity: Branch Banking and Financial Integration," NBER Working Papers 19403, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Levine, Ross & Rubinstein, Yona & Levkov, Alexey, 2014. "Bank Deregulation and Racial Inequality in America," Critical Finance Review, now publishers, vol. 3(1), pages 1-48, January.
  12. Zhang, Jin & Wang, Lanfang & Wang, Susheng, 2012. "Financial development and economic growth: Recent evidence from China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 393-412.
  13. Teng Sun, Stephen & Yannelis, Constantine, 2013. "Credit Constraints and Demand for Higher Education: Evidence from Financial Deregulation," MPRA Paper 48726, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  14. Berger, Allen N. & Kick, Thomas & Schaeck, Klaus, 2012. "Executive board composition and bank risk taking," Discussion Papers 03/2012, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  15. Thorsten Beck, 2013. "Finance, growth and fragility: the role of government," International Journal of Banking, Accounting and Finance, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 5(1/2), pages 49-77.
  16. Amore, Mario Daniele & Schneider, Cédric & Žaldokas, Alminas, 2013. "Credit supply and corporate innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 835-855.

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