The Impact of Firm and Industry Characteristics on Small Firms' Capital Structure: Evidence from Dutch Panel Data
AbstractWe investigate small firms’ capital structure, employing a proprietary database containing financial statements of Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from 2003 to 2005. We find that the capital structure decision of Dutch SMEs is consistent with the pecking order theory: SMEs use profits to reduce their debt level, and growing firms increase their debt position since they need more funds. Furthermore, we document that profits reduce in particular short term debt, whereas growth increases long term debt. This implies that when internal funds are depleted, long term debt is next in the pecking order. We also find evidence for the maturity matching principle in SME capital structure: long term assets are financed with long term debt, while short term assets are financed with short tem debt. This implies that the maturity structure of debt is an instrument for lenders to deal with problems of asymmetric information. Finally, we find that SME capital structure varies across industries but firm characteristics are more important than industry characteristics.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research in its series Discussion Paper with number 2009-21.
Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://center.uvt.nl
Capital Structure; SMEs; pecking order theory; trade-off theory;
Other versions of this item:
- Degryse, H.A. & Goeij, P. C. de & Kappert, P., 2009. "The Impact of Firm and Industry Characteristics on Small Firms' Capital Structure: Evidence from Dutch Panel Data," Discussion Paper 2009-009, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
- G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
- G30 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2009-04-05 (All new papers)
- NEP-BEC-2009-04-05 (Business Economics)
- NEP-CFN-2009-04-05 (Corporate Finance)
- NEP-ENT-2009-04-05 (Entrepreneurship)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Harris, Milton & Raviv, Artur, 1991. " The Theory of Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(1), pages 297-355, March.
- Judith Jordan & Julian Lowe & Peter Taylor, 1998. "Strategy and Financial Policy in UK Small Firms," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(1&2), pages 1-27.
- Nicola Cetorelli & Michele Gambera, 1999.
"Banking Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Growth: International Evidence from Industry Data,"
Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers
00-19, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Nicola Cetorelli, 2001. "Banking Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Growth: International Evidence from Industry Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 617-648, 04.
- Nicola Cetorelli & Michele Gambera, 1999. "Banking market structure, financial dependence and growth: international evidence from industry data," Working Paper Series WP-99-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Bradley, Michael & Jarrell, Gregg A & Kim, E Han, 1984. " On the Existence of an Optimal Capital Structure: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 857-78, July.
- Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2002.
"Market Timing and Capital Structure,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 1-32, 02.
- DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "Optimal capital structure under corporate and personal taxation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-29, March.
- Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
- Hernán Ortiz-Molina & María Penas, 2008.
"Lending to small businesses: the role of loan maturity in addressing information problems,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 30(4), pages 361-383, April.
- Ortiz-Molina, H. & Penas, M.F., 2004. "Lending to Small Businesses: The Role of Loan Maturity in Adressing Information Problems," Discussion Paper 2004-99, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Brennan, Michael J & Schwartz, Edwardo S, 1978. "Corporate Income Taxes, Valuation, and the Problem of Optimal Capital Structure," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(1), pages 103-14, January.
- Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
- Mitchell, Karlyn, 1991. "The Call, Sinking Fund, and Term-To-Maturity Features of Corporate Bonds: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(02), pages 201-222, June.
- Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
- van der Wijst, Nico & Thurik, Roy, 1993. " Determinants of Small Firm Debt Ratios: An Analysis of Retail Panel Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 55-65, March.
- Heshmati, Almas, 2001. "The Dynamics of Capital Structure: Evidence from Swedish Micro and Small Firms," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 0440, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Gavin Cassar & Scott Holmes, 2003.
"Capital structure and financing of SMEs: Australian evidence,"
Accounting and Finance,
Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 0(2), pages 123-147.
- Gavin Cassar & Scott Holmes, 2003. "Capital structure and financing of SMEs: Australian evidence," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 43(2), pages 123-147.
- Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
- Jong, A. de, 1999. "An Empirical Analysis of Capital Structure Decisions in Dutch Firms," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-80017, Tilburg University.
- Peter MacKay & Gordon M. Phillips, 2005. "How Does Industry Affect Firm Financial Structure?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 1433-1466.
- Graham C. Hall & Patrick J. Hutchinson & Nicos Michaelas, 2004. "Determinants of the Capital Structures of European SMEs," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5-6), pages 711-728.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Richard Broekman).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.