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Divestment, Entrepreneurial Incentives and the Decision to go Public

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  • Wagner, W.B.

    (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)

Abstract

This paper develops a theory of the life cycle of the firm based on incentive constraints.The optimal sale of the firm is restricted by entrepreneurial moral hazard and a lack of commitment regarding future divestment.This leads to a dynamic inefficiency that causes the entrepreneur to delay and to stagger the sale of the firm.The analysis provides a common explanation for a range of empirical phenomena related to initial public offerings (IPO's), such as the waiting time until firms go public, lock-up periods, operating underperformance of IPO's and post-IPO divestment.The equilibrium divestment process is shown to be (constrained) inefficient: entrepreneurs sell too late and too much of the firm.Recommendations for financial regulation that restore efficiency are derived.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research in its series Discussion Paper with number 2002-47.

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Date of creation: 2002
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:kubcen:200247

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Web page: http://center.uvt.nl

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Keywords: incentives; IPO;

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References

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  1. Pagano, Marco & Panetta, Fabio & Zingales, Luigi, 1996. "Why Do Companies Go Public? An Empirical Analysis," CEPR Discussion Papers 1332, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Wruck, Karen Hopper, 1989. "Equity ownership concentration and firm value : Evidence from private equity financings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 3-28, June.
  3. Gompers, Paul A., 1996. "Grandstanding in the venture capital industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 133-156, September.
  4. Martine Quinzii & Michael Magill, 2003. "Incentives and Risk Sharing in a Stock Market Equilibrium," Working Papers 9612, University of California, Davis, Department of Economics.
  5. Magill, Michael & Quinzii, Martine, 2002. "Capital market equilibrium with moral hazard," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(1-2), pages 149-190, September.
  6. Mello, Antonio S. & Parsons, John E., 1998. "Going public and the ownership structure of the firm," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 79-109, July.
  7. Welch, Ivo, 1989. " Seasoned Offerings, Imitation Costs, and the Underpricing of Initial Public Offerings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 421-49, June.
  8. Chemmanur, Thomas J, 1993. " The Pricing of Initial Public Offerings: A Dynamic Model with Information Production," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 285-304, March.
  9. Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Partch, M. Megan & Shah, Kshitij, 1997. "Ownership and operating performance of companies that go public," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 281-307, June.
  10. Chemmanur, Thomas J & Fulghieri, Paolo, 1999. "A Theory of the Going-Public Decision," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(2), pages 249-79.
  11. Downes, David H & Heinkel, Robert, 1982. " Signaling and the Valuation of Unseasoned New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 37(1), pages 1-10, March.
  12. Grinblatt, Mark & Hwang, Chuan Yang, 1989. " Signalling and the Pricing of New Issues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(2), pages 393-420, June.
  13. Jain, Bharat A & Kini, Omesh, 1994. " The Post-Issue Operating Performance of IPO Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(5), pages 1699-1726, December.
  14. Zingales, Luigi, 1995. "Insider Ownership and the Decision to Go Public," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(3), pages 425-48, July.
  15. Holthausen, Robert W. & Larcker, David F., 1996. "The financial performance of reverse leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 293-332, November.
  16. Roell, Ailsa, 1996. "The decision to go public: An overview," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1071-1081, April.
  17. Leland, Hayne E & Pyle, David H, 1977. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 371-87, May.
  18. Ellingsen, Tore & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1997. "The Stock Market as a Screening Device and the Decision to Go Public," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 174, Stockholm School of Economics.
  19. Maksimovic, Vojislav & Pichler, Pegaret, 2001. "Technological Innovation and Initial Public Offerings," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(2), pages 459-94.
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