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Backtesting for Risk-Based Regulatory Capital

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Author Info

  • Kerkhof, F.L.J.
  • Melenberg, B.

    (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)

Abstract

In this paper we present a framework for backtesting all currently popular risk measurement methods (including value-at-risk and expected shortfall) using the functional delta method.Estimation risk can be taken explicitly into account.Based on a simulation study we provide evidence that tests for expected shortfall with acceptable low levels have a better performance than tests for value-at-risk in realistic financial sample sizes.We propose a way to determine multiplication factors, and find that the resulting regulatory capital scheme using expected shortfall compares favorably to the current Basle Accord backtesting scheme.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research in its series Discussion Paper with number 2002-110.

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Date of creation: 2002
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Handle: RePEc:dgr:kubcen:2002110

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Keywords: risk management; capital;

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References

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  1. Andrews, Donald W K, 1991. "Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 817-58, May.
  2. Andrews, Donald W K & Monahan, J Christopher, 1992. "An Improved Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(4), pages 953-66, July.
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  5. Acerbi, Carlo & Tasche, Dirk, 2002. "On the coherence of expected shortfall," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1487-1503, July.
  6. Kenneth D. West, 1994. "Asymptotic Inference About Predictive Ability," Macroeconomics 9410002, EconWPA.
  7. Tim Bollerslev, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," EERI Research Paper Series EERI RP 1986/01, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
  8. Tasche, Dirk, 2002. "Expected shortfall and beyond," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(7), pages 1519-1533, July.
  9. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521496032 is not listed on IDEAS
  10. M.J.B. Hall, 1996. "The amendment to the capital accord to incorporate market risk," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 49(197), pages 271-277.
  11. Kerkhof, F.L.J. & Melenberg, B. & Schumacher, J.M., 2002. "Model Risk and Regulatory Capital," Discussion Paper 2002-27, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  12. Berkowitz, Jeremy, 2001. "Testing Density Forecasts, with Applications to Risk Management," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(4), pages 465-74, October.
  13. McNeil, Alexander J. & Frey, Rudiger, 2000. "Estimation of tail-related risk measures for heteroscedastic financial time series: an extreme value approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3-4), pages 271-300, November.
  14. Philippe Artzner & Freddy Delbaen & Jean-Marc Eber & David Heath, 1999. "Coherent Measures of Risk," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 203-228.
  15. M.J.B. Hall, 1996. "The amendment to the capital accord to incorporate market risk," BNL Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 49(197), pages 271-277.
  16. Jeremy Berkowitz & James O'Brien, 2002. "How Accurate Are Value-at-Risk Models at Commercial Banks?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(3), pages 1093-1111, 06.
  17. Peter Christoffersen & Jinyong Hahn & Atsushi Inoue, 2001. "Testing and Comparing Value-at-Risk Measures," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-03, CIRANO.
  18. Yamai, Yasuhiro & Yoshiba, Toshinao, 2002. "On the Validity of Value-at-Risk: Comparative Analyses with Expected Shortfall," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 20(1), pages 57-85, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Chen, Qian & Gerlach, Richard H., 2013. "The two-sided Weibull distribution and forecasting financial tail risk," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 527-540.
  2. Lönnbark, Carl, 2013. "On the role of the estimation error in prediction of expected shortfall," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 847-853.
  3. Caio Almeida & José Vicente, 2009. "Are Interest Rate Options Important for the Assessment of Interest Rate Risk?," Working Papers Series 179, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
  4. Melenberg, B. & Polbennikov, S.Y., 2005. "Testing for Mean-Coherent Regular Risk Spanning," Discussion Paper 2005-99, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  5. Kerkhof, Jeroen & Melenberg, Bertrand & Schumacher, Hans, 2010. "Model risk and capital reserves," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 267-279, January.
  6. Aramonte, Sirio & Giudice Rodriguez, Marius del & Wu, Jason, 2013. "Dynamic factor Value-at-Risk for large heteroskedastic portfolios," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4299-4309.
  7. Escanciano, J. C. & Olmo, J., 2007. "Estimation risk effects on backtesting for parametric value-at-risk models," Working Papers 07/11, Department of Economics, City University London.
  8. Clara Cardone Riportella & Antonio Trujillo Ponce & Maria Jose Casasola, 2008. "Credit risk mitigation and SMEs bank financing in Basel II : the case of the Loan Guarantee Associations," Business Economics Working Papers wb084011, Universidad Carlos III, Departamento de Economía de la Empresa.
  9. Chen, Qian & Gerlach, Richard & Lu, Zudi, 2012. "Bayesian Value-at-Risk and expected shortfall forecasting via the asymmetric Laplace distribution," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 56(11), pages 3498-3516.
  10. Kerkhof, F.L.J., 2003. "Model Risk Analysis for Risk Management and Option Pricing," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-119331, Tilburg University.
  11. Wong, Woon K., 2010. "Backtesting value-at-risk based on tail losses," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 526-538, June.
  12. Wong, Woon K., 2008. "Backtesting trading risk of commercial banks using expected shortfall," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1404-1415, July.
  13. Wong, Woon K & Copeland, Laurence, 2008. "Risk Measurement and Management in a Crisis-Prone World," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2008/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  14. Memmel, Christoph & Wehn, Carsten, 2005. "The supervisor's portfolio: the market price risk of German banks from 2001 to 2003 - Analysis and models for risk aggregation," Discussion Paper Series 2: Banking and Financial Studies 2005,02, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  15. Clara Cardone-Riportella & Antonio Trujillo-Ponce & Anahí Briozzo, 2013. "Analyzing the role of mutual guarantee societies on bank capital requirements for small and medium-sized enterprises," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 142-159, June.
  16. Sean D. Campbell, 2005. "A review of backtesting and backtesting procedures," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2005-21, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  17. Polbennikov, S.Y. & Melenberg, B., 2005. "Mean-Coherent Risk and Mean-Variance Approaches in Portfolio Selection: An Empirical Comparison," Discussion Paper 2005-100, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.

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