Do Foreign Greenfields Outperform Foreign Acquisitions or Vice Versa? An Institutional Perspective
AbstractPrior studies of the comparative performance of greenfields and acquisitions have advanced competing arguments, with some arguing that greenfields should outperform acquisitions because acquisitions are costlier to integrate, and others that acquisitions should outperform greenfields because greenfields suffer from a liability of newness. Moreover, while the costs of integration and the liability of newness are at their greatest during a subsidiaryâ€™s first years, prior studies have tested their competing arguments on samples containing older subsidiaries. We extend these prior studies by (1) developing an institutional theory-based framework that simultaneously considers the costs of integration and the liability of newness, (2) recognizing that both types of costs vary with the level of subsidiary integration, and (3) focusing on the stage of their life during which subsidiaries predominantly incur these costs. To measure subsidiary performance, we ask managers of Dutch multinationals how their ex ante performance expectations compare to the subsidiaryâ€™s ex post performance during its first two years. Analyzing a sample of 191 foreign subsidiaries and controlling for entry mode self-selection and other factors, we find that acquisitions outperform greenfields at low and intermediate levels of subsidiary integration, but that greenfields outperform acquisitions at higher integration levels.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam. in its series Research Paper with number ERS-2008-009-ORG.
Date of creation: 05 Mar 2008
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.erim.eur.nl/
HD30.28; acquisitions; institutional theory; foreign entry; greenfields; subsidiary performance; subsidiary integration;
Other versions of this item:
- Arjen H. L. Slangen & Jean-François Hennart, 2008. "Do Foreign Greenfields Outperform Foreign Acquisitions or Vice Versa? An Institutional Perspective," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(7), pages 1301-1328, November.
- HD3 - Public Economics - - - - -
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-04-12 (All new papers)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Piero Morosini & Scott Shane & Harbir Singh, 1998. "National Cultural Distance and Cross-Border Acquisition Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(1), pages 137-158, March.
- Pol Herrmann & Deepak K. Datta, 2006. "CEO Experiences: Effects on the Choice of FDI Entry Mode," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(4), pages 755-778, 06.
- Pennings, J.M. & Barkema , H. & Douma, S., 1994. "Organizational learning and diversification," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-382776, Tilburg University.
- Peter S Davis & Ashay B Desai & John D Francis, 2000. "Mode of International Entry: An Isomorphism Perspective," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 31(2), pages 239-258, June.
- Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
- Yadong Luo, 1999. "Time-based Experience and International Expansion: The Case of an Emerging Economy," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(4), pages 505-534, 07.
- Jean-François Hennart & Young-Ryeol Park, 1993.
"Greenfield vs. Acquisition: The Strategy of Japanese Investors in the United States,"
INFORMS, vol. 39(9), pages 1054-1070, September.
- Hennart, J.-F. & Park, Y.R., 1993. "Greenfield vs. Acquisition : the strategy of Japanes investors in the United states," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-174430, Tilburg University.
- Klaus E. Meyer, 2005. "Foreign Investment Strategies and Sub-national Institutions in Emerging Markets: Evidence from Vietnam," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 63-93, 01.
- C Patrick Woodcook & Paul W Beamish & Shige Makino, 1994. "Ownership-Based Entry mode Strategies and International Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(2), pages 253-273, June.
- J Michael Geringer & Louis Hebert, 1991. "Measuring Performance of International Joint Ventures," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 22(2), pages 249-263, June.
- Lance Eliot Brouthers & John Hadjimarcou, 2005. "Generic Product Strategies for Emerging Market Exports into Triad Nation Markets: A Mimetic Isomorphism Approach," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 225-245, 01.
- Christine Oliver, 1997. "The Influence of Institutional and Task Environment Relationships on Organizational Performance: The Canadian Construction Industry," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(1), pages 99-124, 01.
- David L. Deephouse & Suzanne M. Carter, 2005. "An Examination of Differences Between Organizational Legitimacy and Organizational Reputation," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(2), pages 329-360, 03.
- Chris Changwha Chung, 2005. "The Impact of Institutional Reforms on Characteristics and Survival of Foreign Subsidiaries in Emerging Economies," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 35-62, 01.
- Hennart, Jean-François & Roehl, Thomas & Zeng, Ming, 2002. "Do exits proxy a liability of foreignness?: The case of Japanese exits from the US," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 241-264.
- J. Myles Shaver, 1998. "Accounting for Endogeneity When Assessing Strategy Performance: Does Entry Mode Choice Affect FDI Survival?," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(4), pages 571-585, April.
- Benito, Gabriel R.G. & Tomassen, Sverre & Bonache-Pérez, Jaime & Pla-Barber, José, 2005. "A transaction cost analysis of staffing decisions in international operations," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 101-126, March.
- Shimizu, Katsuhiko & Hitt, Michael A. & Vaidyanath, Deepa & Pisano, Vincenzo, 2004. "Theoretical foundations of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A review of current research and recommendations for the future," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 307-353.
- Georgopoulos, Antonios & Preusse, Heinz Gert, 2009. "Cross-border acquisitions vs. Greenfield investment: A comparative performance analysis in Greece," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 592-605, December.
- Suma Athreye & Georgios Batsakis & Satwinder Singh, 2013. "Subsidiary Embeddedness is a Strategic Choice: Complementarity and the factors associated with different types of embeddedness," DRUID Working Papers 13-05, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ERIM Series Handler at the ERIM Office).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.