Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Excess control rights and corporate acquisitions

Contents:

Author Info

  • Belot, François

Abstract

The typical French listed company exhibits a concentrated ownership structure with the largest shareholder typically holding more voting rights than cash flow rights. This paper studies the acquisitions made by French listed firms over the period 2000 through 2009 and investigates how such ownership characteristics affect acquirer abnormal returns and acquisition activity. Abnormal returns around acquisitions are decreasing as the wedge between voting and cash flow rights increases. This result suggests that controlling shareholders use corporate acquisitions as a means of extracting private benefits at the expense of minority shareholders. The well-documented valuation discount associated with the divergence between voting and cash flow rights could be explained by less efficient acquisitions. The paper also shows that firms whose largest shareholder holds significant excess control rights are less likely to engage in M&A activity. This last finding raises the issue of sample selection bias, which has not been taken into account in earlier studies.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://basepub.dauphine.fr/xmlui/bitstream/123456789/5922/1/Belot_2010_1141.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Paris Dauphine University in its series Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine with number 123456789/5922.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: Dec 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dau:papers:123456789/5922

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.dauphine.fr/en/welcome.html
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Acquirer returns; Bidding likelihood; Ownership structure; Excess control rights; Corporate acquisitions;

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Stijn Claessens & Simeon Djankov & Joseph P. H. Fan & Larry H. P. Lang, 2002. "Disentangling the Incentive and Entrenchment Effects of Large Shareholdings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2741-2771, December.
  2. Ronald W. Masulis & Cong Wang & Fei Xie, 2007. "Corporate Governance and Acquirer Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(4), pages 1851-1889, 08.
  3. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "Corporate Ownership Around the World," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1840, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  4. Roosenboom, Peter & Schramade, Willem, 2006. "The price of power: Valuing the controlling position of owner-managers in French IPO firms," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 270-295, January.
  5. Ljungqvist, Alexander & Habib, Michel Antoine & Chemla, Gilles, 2007. "An Analysis of Shareholder Agreements," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4112, Paris Dauphine University.
  6. Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2006. "Complex Ownership Structures and Corporate Valuations," NBER Working Papers 12675, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Marianne Bertrand & Paras Mehta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2000. "Ferreting Out Tunneling: An Application to Indian Business Groups," NBER Working Papers 7952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Gianfranco Gianfrate, 2007. "What Do Shareholders' Coalitions Really Want? Evidence from Italian voting trusts," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 15(2), pages 122-132, 03.
  9. Morten Bennedsen & Kasper Meisner Nielsen & Francisco Pérez-González & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2007. "Inside the Family Firm: the Role of Families in Succession Decisions and Performance," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(2), pages 647-691, 05.
  10. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
  11. Brown, Stephen J. & Warner, Jerold B., 1980. "Measuring security price performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 205-258, September.
  12. Kee-Hong Bae & Jun-Koo Kang & Jin-Mo Kim, 2002. "Tunneling or Value Added? Evidence from Mergers by Korean Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2695-2740, December.
  13. Clifford G. Holderness, 2009. "The Myth of Diffuse Ownership in the United States," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 1377-1408, April.
  14. Yohanes E. Riyanto & Linda A. Toolsema, 2004. "Tunneling and Propping: A Justification for Pyramidal Ownership," Departmental Working Papers wp0409, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
  15. Alexander Dyck & Luigi Zingales, 2004. "Private Benefits of Control: An International Comparison," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(2), pages 537-600, 04.
  16. Cronqvist, Henrik & Nilsson, Mattias, 2003. "Agency Costs of Controlling Minority Shareholders," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(04), pages 695-719, December.
  17. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
  18. Ronald W. Masulis & Cong Wang & Fei Xie, 2009. "Agency Problems at Dual-Class Companies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(4), pages 1697-1727, 08.
  19. Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger, 2009. "Founder-CEOs, Investment Decisions, and Stock Market Performance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(02), pages 439-466, April.
  20. Bennedsen, Morten & Nielsen, Kasper Meisner, 2010. "Incentive and entrenchment effects in European ownership," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 2212-2229, September.
  21. Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2008. "The law and economics of self-dealing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 430-465, June.
  22. Saeyoung Chang, 1998. "Takeovers of Privately Held Targets, Methods of Payment, and Bidder Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 773-784, 04.
  23. Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "A Survey of Corporate Governance," NBER Working Papers 5554, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  24. Joshua Angrist & Alan Krueger, 2001. "Instrumental Variables and the Search for Identification: From Supply and Demand to Natural Experiments," Working Papers 834, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  25. David Sraer & David Thesmar, 2004. "Performance and Behavior of Family Firms : Evidence from the French Stock Market," Working Papers 2004-24, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  26. Christopher F Baum, 2006. "An Introduction to Modern Econometrics using Stata," Stata Press books, StataCorp LP, number imeus, March.
  27. Ronald C. Anderson & David M. Reeb, 2003. "Founding-Family Ownership and Firm Performance: Evidence from the S&P 500," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(3), pages 1301-1327, 06.
  28. Buysschaert, An & Deloof, Marc & Jegers, Marc, 2004. "Equity sales in Belgian corporate groups: expropriation of minority shareholders? A clinical study," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 81-103, January.
  29. Coles, Jeffrey L. & Lemmon, Michael L. & Felix Meschke, J., 2012. "Structural models and endogeneity in corporate finance: The link between managerial ownership and corporate performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 149-168.
  30. Moeller, Sara B. & Schlingemann, Frederik P., 2005. "Global diversification and bidder gains: A comparison between cross-border and domestic acquisitions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 533-564, March.
  31. Bolton, P. & Thadden, E.L. von, 1996. "Blocks, liquidity and corporate control," Discussion Paper 1996-80, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  32. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1988. "Management ownership and market valuation : An empirical analysis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 293-315, January.
  33. Zingales, Luigi, 1994. "The Value of the Voting Right: A Study of the Milan Stock Exchange Experience," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 125-48.
  34. Walid Ben-Amar & Paul André, 2006. "Separation of Ownership from Control and Acquiring Firm Performance: The Case of Family Ownership in Canada," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(3-4), pages 517-543.
  35. Attig, Najah & Guedhami, Omrane & Mishra, Dev, 2008. "Multiple large shareholders, control contests, and implied cost of equity," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 721-737, December.
  36. Mara Faccio, 2010. "Differences between Politically Connected and Nonconnected Firms: A Cross-Country Analysis," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 39(3), pages 905-928, 09.
  37. Sara B. Moeller & Frederik P. Schlingemann & René M. Stulz, 2005. "Wealth Destruction on a Massive Scale? A Study of Acquiring-Firm Returns in the Recent Merger Wave," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 757-782, 04.
  38. Martynova, Marina & Renneboog, Luc, 2009. "What determines the financing decision in corporate takeovers: Cost of capital, agency problems, or the means of payment?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 290-315, June.
  39. Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 2001. "Stock Market Driven Acquisitions," NBER Working Papers 8439, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  40. Winton, Andrew, 1993. " Limitation of Liability and the Ownership Structure of the Firm," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(2), pages 487-512, June.
  41. Belén Villalonga & Raphael Amit, 2009. "How Are U.S. Family Firms Controlled?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(8), pages 3047-3091, August.
  42. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  43. Chemla, Gilles & Habib, Michel Antoine & Ljungqvist, Alexander P, 2002. "An Analysis of Shareholder Agreements," CEPR Discussion Papers 3457, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  44. Burkart, Mike & Lee, Samuel, 2007. "One Share - One Vote: The Theory," SIFR Research Report Series 57, Institute for Financial Research.
  45. Marco Bigelli & Stefano Mengoli, 2004. "Sub-Optimal Acquisition Decisions under a Majority Shareholder System," Journal of Management and Governance, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 373-405, October.
  46. Mara Faccio, 2006. "Politically Connected Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(1), pages 369-386, March.
  47. Stulz, Rene M. & Williamson, Rohan, 2003. "Culture, openness, and finance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 313-349, December.
  48. Maury, Benjamin & Pajuste, Anete, 2005. "Multiple large shareholders and firm value," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1813-1834, July.
  49. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  50. Moeller, Sara B. & Schlingemann, Frederik P. & Stulz, Rene M., 2004. "Firm size and the gains from acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 201-228, August.
  51. Franck Bancel & Cusha Mittoo, 2001. "European Managerial Perceptions of the Net Benefits of Foreign Stock Listings," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 7(2), pages 213-236.
  52. Denis, Diane K. & McConnell, John J., 2003. "International Corporate Governance," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(01), pages 1-36, March.
  53. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  54. Demsetz, Harold & Lehn, Kenneth, 1985. "The Structure of Corporate Ownership: Causes and Consequences," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(6), pages 1155-77, December.
  55. Holmén, Martin & Knopf, John D., 2004. "Minority Shareholder Protections and the Private Benefits of Control for Swedish Mergers," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(01), pages 167-191, March.
  56. Travlos, Nickolaos G, 1987. " Corporate Takeover Bids, Methods of Payment, and Bidding Firms' Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 943-63, September.
  57. Morck, Randall & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1990. " Do Managerial Objectives Drive Bad Acquisitions?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 31-48, March.
  58. Rydqvist, Kristian, 1996. "Takeover bids and the relative prices of shares that differ in their voting rights," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1407-1425, September.
  59. Jarrad Harford, 1999. "Corporate Cash Reserves and Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 1969-1997, December.
  60. R. Glenn Hubbard & Darius Palia, 1995. "Benefits of Control, Managerial Ownership, and the Stock Returns of Acquiring Firms," NBER Working Papers 5079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  61. Paul A. Gompers & Joy Ishii & Andrew Metrick, 2010. "Extreme Governance: An Analysis of Dual-Class Firms in the United States," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(3), pages 1051-1088, March.
  62. Yakov Amihud & Baruch Lev, 1981. "Risk Reduction as a Managerial Motive for Conglomerate Mergers," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(2), pages 605-617, Autumn.
  63. Lins, Karl V., 2003. "Equity Ownership and Firm Value in Emerging Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 38(01), pages 159-184, March.
  64. Belot, François, 2008. "Shareholder agreements and firm value: Evidence from French listed firms," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/2940, Paris Dauphine University.
  65. Francisco Pérez-González, 2006. "Inherited Control and Firm Performance," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(5), pages 1559-1588, December.
  66. Omrane Guedhami & Dev Mishra, 2009. "Excess Control, Corporate Governance and Implied Cost of Equity: International Evidence," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 44(4), pages 489-524, November.
  67. Heitor V. Almeida & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2006. "A Theory of Pyramidal Ownership and Family Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(6), pages 2637-2680, December.
  68. Mara Faccio & David Stolin, 2006. "Expropriation vs. Proportional Sharing in Corporate Acquisitions," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1413-1444, May.
  69. Maury, Benjamin, 2006. "Family ownership and firm performance: Empirical evidence from Western European corporations," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 321-341, January.
  70. Schlingemann, Frederik P. & Stulz, Rene M. & Walkling, Ralph A., 2002. "Divestitures and the liquidity of the market for corporate assets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 117-144, April.
  71. Demsetz, Harold & Villalonga, Belen, 2001. "Ownership structure and corporate performance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 209-233, September.
  72. Faccio, Mara & McConnell, John J. & Stolin, David, 2006. "Returns to Acquirers of Listed and Unlisted Targets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(01), pages 197-220, March.
  73. Burkart, Mike & Gromb, Denis & Panunzi, Fausto, 1997. "Large Shareholders, Monitoring, and the Value of the Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 112(3), pages 693-728, August.
  74. Mara Faccio & Ronald W. Masulis, 2005. "The Choice of Payment Method in European Mergers and Acquisitions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1345-1388, 06.
  75. Claessens, Stijn & Djankov, Simeon & Lang, Larry H. P., 2000. "The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 81-112.
  76. Larcker, David F. & Rusticus, Tjomme O., 2010. "On the use of instrumental variables in accounting research," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 186-205, April.
  77. Faccio, Mara & Lang, Larry H. P., 2002. "The ultimate ownership of Western European corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 365-395, September.
  78. Denis, David J. & Sarin, Atulya, 1999. "Ownership and board structures in publicly traded corporations," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 187-223, May.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dau:papers:123456789/5922. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Alexandre Faure).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.