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Libéralisation commerciale et emploi en Tunisie: un modèle d’équilibre général avec salaires d’efficience

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  • Marouani, Mohamed Ali

Abstract

Within a multisectoral general equilibrium framework, we explicitly model endogenous wage differentials between sectors. The model, based on efficiency wage theory (the Shirking Model) is used to assess the impact of trade liberalization on employment and wages in Tunisia. Highly skilled workers are the main losers because their specialization reduces their mobility in the short run. We show that the results are different from those obtained with an exogenous wage differentials CGE model in terms of employment, but also mainly in terms of income distribution among the different categories of workers. These findings are explained by the different labour market closures in the two models: Unemployment is the equilibrating variable in the efficiency wage model, while it is the average wage in the exogenous wage differentials model.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Paris Dauphine University in its series Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine with number 123456789/5173.

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Date of creation: 1999
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Publication status: Published in DIAL Document de travail, 1999
Handle: RePEc:dau:papers:123456789/5173

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Related research

Keywords: ouverture économique; Tunisie; écarts de salaires;

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References

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  1. Edward E. Leamer, 1999. "Effort, Wages, and the International Division of Labor," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(6), pages 1127-1162, December.
  2. Akerlof, George A, 1982. "Labor Contracts as Partial Gift Exchange," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 97(4), pages 543-69, November.
  3. Mussa, Michael, 1974. "Tariffs and the Distribution of Income: The Importance of Factor Specificity, Substitutability, and Intensity in the Short and Long Run," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1191-1203, Nov.-Dec..
  4. Jeremy I. Bulow & Lawrence H. Summers, 1985. "A Theory of Dual Labor Markets with Application to Industrial Policy, Discrimination and Keynesian Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 1666, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Konan, Denise Eby & Maskus, Keith E., 2000. "Joint trade liberalization and tax reform in a small open economy: the case of Egypt," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 365-392, April.
  6. Harris, John R & Todaro, Michael P, 1970. "Migration, Unemployment & Development: A Two-Sector Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 60(1), pages 126-42, March.
  7. Lawrence H. Summers, 1988. "Relative Wages, Efficiency Wages, and Keynesian Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 2590, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Mincer, Jacob, 1976. "Unemployment Effects of Minimum Wages," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages S87-104, August.
  9. Decreux, Yvan, 1999. "Dynamique de la distribution du revenu suite à l'ouverture commerciale de la Tunisie," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/5172, Paris Dauphine University.
  10. Corden, W M & Findlay, Ronald, 1975. "Urban Unemployment, Intersectoral Capital Mobility and Development Policy," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 42(165), pages 59-78, February.
  11. Hélène Zajdela, 1990. "Le dualisme du marché du travail : enjeux et fondements théoriques," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 92(1), pages 31-42.
  12. Neary, J Peter, 1981. "On the Harris-Todaro Model with Intersectoral Capital Mobility," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 48(191), pages 219-34, August.
  13. Solow, Robert M., 1979. "Another possible source of wage stickiness," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 79-82.
  14. André Zylberberg & Anne Perrot, 1989. "Salaire d'efficience et dualisme du marché du travail," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 40(1), pages 5-20.
  15. Copeland, Brian R., 1989. "Efficiency wages in a Ricardian model of international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3-4), pages 221-244, November.
  16. Yellen, Janet L, 1984. "Efficiency Wage Models of Unemployment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 200-205, May.
  17. Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-93, March.
  18. Shapiro, Carl & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1984. "Equilibrium Unemployment as a Worker Discipline Device," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 433-44, June.
  19. Walsh, Frank, 1999. "A Multisector Model of Efficiency Wages," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(2), pages 351-76, April.
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