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Evidence on the glass ceiling effect in France using matched worker-firm data

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  • Jellal, Mohamed
  • Nordman, Christophe Jalil
  • Wolff, François-Charles

Abstract

In this article, we investigate the relevance of the glass ceiling hypothesis in France, according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution. Using a matched worker-firm data set of about 1 30 000 employees and 14 000 employers, we estimate quantile regressions and rely on a principal component analysis to summarize information specific to the firms. Our different results show that accounting for firm-related characteristics reduces the gender earnings gap at the top of the distribution, but the latter still remains much higher at the top than at the bottom. Furthermore, a quantile decomposition shows that the gender wage gap is mainly due to differences in the returns to observed characteristics rather than in differences in characteristics between men and women.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Paris Dauphine University in its series Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine with number 123456789/4377.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Publication status: Published in Applied Economics, 2008, Vol. 40, no. 24. pp. 3233-3250.Length: 17 pages
Handle: RePEc:dau:papers:123456789/4377

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Keywords: Données appariées employeurs-employés; Régressions de quantiles; Plafond de verre; Écart salarial selon le genre; Matched worker-firm data; Quantile regressions; Glass ceiling; Gender wage gap;

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  1. José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
  2. Hahn, Jinyong, 1995. "Bootstrapping Quantile Regression Estimators," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(01), pages 105-121, February.
  3. Albrecht, James & van Vuuren, Aico & Vroman, Susan, 2009. "Counterfactual distributions with sample selection adjustments: Econometric theory and an application to the Netherlands," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 383-396, August.
  4. Mohamed Jellal & Christophe Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2006. "Theory and evidence on the glass ceiling effect using matched worker-firm data," Working Papers DT/2006/03, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  5. Ana Rute Cardoso, 1999. "Firms' wage policies and the rise in labor market inequality: The case of Portugal," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 53(1), pages 87-102, October.
  6. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
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  9. Llorens, Vanessa & De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara & Dolado, Juan J., 2004. "Ceilings and Floors? Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain," DFAEII Working Papers 2005-01, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
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  16. Christophe Muller & Christophe Nordman, 2004. "Which Human Capital Matters for Rich and Poor’s Wages?Evidence from Matched Worker-Firm Data from Tunisia," Working Papers DT/2004/09, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation), revised Oct 2004.
  17. Nathalie Greenan, 2003. "Organisational change, technology, employment and skills: an empirical study of French manufacturing," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(2), pages 287-316, March.
  18. Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
  19. Jacques Silber & Michal Weber, 1999. "Labour market discrimination: are there significant differences between the various decomposition procedures?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(3), pages 359-365.
  20. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
  21. Abowd, John M. & Kramarz, Francis, 1999. "The analysis of labor markets using matched employer-employee data," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 40, pages 2629-2710 Elsevier.
  22. Chris Sakellariou, 2004. "The use of quantile regressions in estimating gender wage differentials: a case study of the Philippines," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 1001-1007.
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  25. Arulampalam, Wiji & Booth, Alison L. & Bryan, Mark L., 2004. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution," IZA Discussion Papers 1373, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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Cited by:
  1. Bocquier, Philippe & Nordman, Christophe J. & Vescovo, Aude, 2010. "Employment Vulnerability and Earnings in Urban West Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 1297-1314, September.
  2. Christophe Nordman & Laure Pasquier-Doumer, 2013. "Transitions in a West African Labour Market: The Role of Social Networks," Working Papers DT/2013/12, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  3. Nordman, Christophe Jalil & Wolff, François-Charles, 2007. "On-the-job learning and earnings in Benin, Morocco and Senegal," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4333, Paris Dauphine University.
  4. Nordman, Christophe Jalil & Wolff, François-Charles, 2009. "Is there a glass ceiling in Morocco? Evidence from matched worker-firm data," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/4344, Paris Dauphine University.
  5. Vaillant, Julia & Nordman, Christophe Jalil, 2013. "Inputs, Gender Roles or Sharing Norms? Assessing the Gender Performance Gap Among Informal Entrepreneurs in Madagascar," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/12203, Paris Dauphine University.
  6. Nordman, Christophe Jalil & Wolff, François-Charles, 2009. "On-the-job learning and earnings: Comparative evidence from Morocco and Senegal," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/5948, Paris Dauphine University.
  7. Arda Aktas & Gokce Uysal, 2011. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Turkey Using the Wage Structure Survey," Working Papers 005, Bahcesehir University, Betam, revised Mar 2012.
  8. Christophe J. Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2009. "Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms," Working Papers hal-00421227, HAL.
  9. Pasquier-Doumer, Laure & Nordman, Christophe Jalil, 2011. "Transitions and Occupational Changes in a West African Urban Labour Market: The Role of Social Network," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/11236, Paris Dauphine University.
  10. Nordman, Christophe Jalil & Pasquier-Doumer, Laure, 2014. "Transitions in a West African Labour Market: The Role of Family Networks," IZA Discussion Papers 8349, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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