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Institutions, gouvernance et croissance de long terme à Madagascar : l'énigme et le paradoxe

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  • Razafindrakoto, Mireille
  • Roubaud, François
  • Wachsberger, Jean-Michel
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    Abstract

    The classical and more recent theories on development all fail to explain Madagascar’s long-running economic underperformance. This paper proposes a reinterpretation of Malagasy history based on the analytical framework of political economy. Our analyses point to the fact that, despite deep-rooted blockages, Madagascar has shown an unexpected capacity to transform and modernise: economic transition (with the emergence of a new entrepreneurial class) and political transition (with democratic alternation of power); the setting up of sound institutions that characterise “modern” societies; control of violence; and the Malagasy people’s expression of their economic and civic aspirations. However, three structural constraints hinder the country’s development. Firstly, social fragmentation, an atomised population and the atrophy of intermediary bodies foster a high concentration of power in the hands of a few elites who are neither compelled nor encouraged to develop a medium- or long-term vision and take the interests of the vast majority into consideration. Secondly, although the Malagasy people lay claim to democratic principles, they remain torn between the demands of democratic and meritocratic nature and the traditional values that impose respect for the real and symbolic hierarchies they have inherited from the past. Finally, although the policies promoted and sometimes imposed by international donors may have had some positive effects, they have also had a hugely negative impact on the State’s capacity to regulate society.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Paris Dauphine University in its series Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine with number 123456789/12014.

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    Date of creation: Oct 2013
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    Publication status: Published in DIAL Document de travail, 2013
    Handle: RePEc:dau:papers:123456789/12014

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    Related research

    Keywords: Economie politique; Elites; Croissance de long terme; structure sociale; Rentes; Violence; Political economy; Madagascar; Elite; long term growth; social structure; Rents;

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    1. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson, 2000. "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 7771, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Andrimihaja, Noro Aina & Cinyabuguma, Matthias & Devarajan, Shantayanan, 2011. "Avoiding the fragility trap in Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5884, The World Bank.
    3. Jean-Pierre Raison, 1991. "Dynamismes ruraux et contrastes fonciers dans Madagascar en crise," Revue Tiers Monde, Programme National Persée, vol. 32(128), pages 901-915.
    4. Charles Oman & Christiane Arndt, 2006. "Governance Indicators for Development," OECD Development Centre Policy Insights 33, OECD Publishing.
    5. North,Douglass C. & Wallis,John Joseph & Weingast,Barry R., 2013. "Violence and Social Orders," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9781107646995, October.
    6. Cling, Jean-Pierre & Razafindrakoto, Mireille & Roubaud, Francois, 2005. "Export processing zones in Madagascar: a success story under threat?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 785-803, May.
    7. François Roubaud, 2001. "Démocratie électorale et inertie institutionnelle à Madagascar," Working Papers DT/2001/03, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
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