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The Role of Money Demand in a Business Cycle Model with Staggered Wage Contracts

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  • Gerke, Rafael
  • Rubart, Jens

Abstract

The question of the main determinants of persistent responses due to nominal shocks captures, at least since Chari et al. (2000), a major part of the recent macroeconomic debate. However, the question whether sticky wages and/or sticky prices are sufficient for persistent reactions of key economic variables remains open. In the present model we allow for nominal rigidities due to Taylor- like wage setting as well as price adjustment costs. However, as our analysis illustrates, smoothing marginal costs seems crucial to derive a contract multiplier, wage staggering alone is not sufficient. Without considering a more specific analysis of factor market frictions, we enforce a point made by Erceg (1997) by analyzing the structure of money demand. In particular, we analyze a `standard' consumption based money demand function by varying the interest rate elasticity of money demand as well as the steady state rate of money holdings. Our results show that the persistency of the output/price dynamics can be affected crucially by the form of the implicit money demand function. In particular, it is shown that staggered wage contracts have to be accompanied by a sufficiently low interest rate elasticity, otherwise the model fails to reproduce reasonable responses of real variables.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL) in its series Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics with number 37210.

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Date of creation: Feb 2005
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Publication status: Published in Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics . 142 (2005-02)
Handle: RePEc:dar:ddpeco:37210

Note: for complete metadata visit http://tubiblio.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/37210/
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Keywords: Monetary Policy Shocks; Sticky Prices; Staggered Wages; Money Demand;

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  1. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles L. Evans, 1996. "Sticky price and limited participation models of money: a comparison," Staff Report 227, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  2. Rochelle M. Edge, 2002. "The Equivalence of Wage and Price Staggering in Monetary Business Cycle Models," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 5(3), pages 559-585, July.
  3. repec:nbr:nberre:0126 is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Rotemberg, Julio J & Woodford, Michael, 1992. "Oligopolistic Pricing and the Effects of Aggregate Demand on Economic Activity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1153-1207, December.
  5. Ball, Laurence & Romer, David, 1990. "Real Rigidities and the Non-neutrality of Money," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(2), pages 183-203, April.
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  7. Kevin X.D. Huang & Zheng Liu & Louis Phaneuf, 2004. "Why Does the Cyclical Behavior of Real Wages Change Over Time?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 836-856, September.
  8. Ascari, Guido & Rankin, Neil, 2002. "Staggered wages and output dynamics under disinflation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 653-680, April.
  9. Gerke, Rafael, 2001. "Nominal rigidities and the dynamic effects of a monetary shock," Darmstadt Discussion Papers in Economics 37702, Darmstadt Technical University, Department of Business Administration, Economics and Law, Institute of Economics (VWL).
  10. Kevin X. D. Huang & Zheng Liu, 1998. "Staggered Contracts and Business Cycle Persistence," Cahiers de recherche CREFE / CREFE Working Papers 105, CREFE, Université du Québec à Montréal.
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  16. Ireland, Peter N., 1997. "A small, structural, quarterly model for monetary policy evaluation," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 83-108, December.
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  19. Cooley, T.F. & Cho, J.O., 1991. "The Business Cycle with Nominal Contracts," Papers 90-07, Rochester, Business - General.
  20. Ascari, G., 1997. "Optimizing Agents, Staggered Wages and Persistence in the Real Effects of Money Shocks," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 486, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  21. Katharine G. Abraham & John C. Haltiwanger, 1995. "Real Wages and the Business Cycle," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(3), pages 1215-1264, September.
  22. Hairault, Jean-Olivier & Portier, Franck, 1993. "Money, New-Keynesian macroeconomics and the business cycle," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1533-1568, December.
  23. Torben M. Andersen, 2004. "Real and Nominal PropAgation of Nominal Shocks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(492), pages 174-195, 01.
  24. Huang, Kevin X. D. & Liu, Zheng, 2002. "Staggered price-setting, staggered wage-setting, and business cycle persistence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 405-433, March.
  25. Michael T. Kiley, 1997. "Staggered price setting and real rigidities," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-46, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  26. Blanchard, Olivier Jean & Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, 1987. "Monopolistic Competition and the Effects of Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(4), pages 647-66, September.
  27. Rotemberg, Julio J, 1982. "Sticky Prices in the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(6), pages 1187-1211, December.
  28. Evan F. Koenig, 2000. "Is there a persistence problem? Part 2: Maybe not," Economic and Financial Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, issue Q IV, pages 11-19.
  29. Julio Rotemberg & Michael Woodford, 1997. "An Optimization-Based Econometric Framework for the Evaluation of Monetary Policy," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1997, Volume 12, pages 297-361 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  30. Guido Ascari, 2003. "Price/Wage Staggering and Persistence: A Unifying Framework," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 511-540, 09.
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