AbstractIn the classical general equilibrium model, agents keep all their promises, every good is traded, and competition prevents any agent from earning superior returns on investments in financial markets. In this paper I introduce the age-old problem of broken promises into the general equilibrium model, and I find that a new market dynamic emerges. Given the legal system and institutions, market forces of supply and demand will establish the collateral levels which are required to secure promises. Since physical collateral will typically be scarce, these collateral levels will be set so low that there is bound to be some default. Many kinds of promises will not be traded, because that also economizes on collateral. Scarce collateral thus creates a mechanism for determining endogenously which assets will be traded, thereby helping to resolve a long standing puzzle in general equilibrium theory. Finally, I shall show that under suitable conditions, in rational expectations equilibrium, some investors will be able to earn higher than normal returns on their investments. The legal system, in conjunction with the market, will be under constant pressure to expand the potential sources of collateral. This will lead to market innovation. I illustrate the theoretical points in this paper with some of my experiences on Wall Street as director of fixed income research at the firm of Kidder Peabody.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University in its series Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers with number 1143.
Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: Dec 1996
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in W.B. Arthur, S.N. Durlauf and D.A. Lane, eds., The Economy as an Evolving Complex System II, Addison-Wesley, 1997, pp. 285-320
Note: CFP 1057.
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Yale University, Box 208281, New Haven, CT 06520-8281 USA
Phone: (203) 432-3702
Fax: (203) 432-6167
Web page: http://cowles.econ.yale.edu/
More information through EDIRC
Postal: Cowles Foundation, Yale University, Box 208281, New Haven, CT 06520-8281 USA
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- William R. Zame, 1990.
"Efficiency and the Role of Default When Security Markets are Incomplete,"
UCLA Economics Working Papers
585, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Zame, William R, 1993. "Efficiency and the Role of Default When Security Markets Are Incomplete," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1142-64, December.
- William R. Zame, 1992. "Efficiency and the Role of Default When Security Markets are Incomplete," UCLA Economics Working Papers 673, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Smith, Vernon L, 1972. "Default Risk, Scale, and the Homemade Leverage Theorem," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(1), pages 66-76, March.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E & Weiss, Andrew, 1981. "Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 393-410, June.
- John Moore & Nobuhiro Kiyotaki, .
1995-5, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
- Pradeep Dubey & John Geanakoplos & Martin Shubik, 2001.
"Default and Punishment in General Equilibrium,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
1304R5, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Mar 2004.
- Pradeep Dubey & John Geanakoplos & Martin Shubik, 2001. "Default and Punishment in General Equilibrium," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1304, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- P. Dubey & J. Geanakoplos & M . Shubik, 2001. "Default and Punishment in General Equilibrium," Department of Economics Working Papers 01-07, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.
- Eduardo Siandra, 2002. "The Economics of financial Matching," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 1002, Department of Economics - dECON.
- Jaime Jose Orrillo Carhuajulca, 2000.
"Default and Exogenous Collateral in Incomplete Markets with a Continuum of States,"
Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers
1860, Econometric Society.
- Orrillo, Jaime, 2001. "Default and exogenous collateral in incomplete markets with a continuum of states," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 151-165, February.
- Steinert, Mariano & Torres-Martinez, Juan Pablo, 2007. "General equilibrium in CLO markets," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(6), pages 709-734, August.
- Orrillo, Jaime, 2005. "Collateral once again," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 27-33, April.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Glena Ames).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.