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Political Origins of Financial Structure

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  • Sambit Bhattacharyya

Abstract

There is a growing policy interest in the role of financial structure in promoting development. However, very little is known about how different financial structures emerge and evolve. In this paper we empirically assess the political origins of financial structure. Using difference-in difference estimation and annual data, we study the effects of democratization on financial structure in a sample of 96 countries covering the period 1970 to 2005. Democratization here corresponds to the event of becoming a democracy. We find that democratization leads to a more market-based financial system. Democratic change could also be incremental rather than a one off. To identify the causal effect of incremental democratic change on financial structure we estimate a separate model and find that democracy matters. We also find that countries with substantial democratic capital are more likely to have a market-based financial structure. Our main results are robust to a variety of controls, instrumental variable estimation using commodity price and rainfall as instruments, Arellano-Bond GMM estimation, alternative measures of democracy and financial structure, and across different samples.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford in its series CSAE Working Paper Series with number 2011-20.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:csa:wpaper:2011-20

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Keywords: Democratization; Democracy; Financial Structure;

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  1. Sambit Bhattacharyya & Paul Collier, 2014. "Public capital in resource rich economies: is there a curse?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(1), pages 1-24, January.
  2. Hamilton, Kirk & Clemens, Michael, 1999. "Genuine Savings Rates in Developing Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 333-56, May.
  3. Thorsten Beck & Ross Levine, 2003. "Legal Institutions and Financial Development," NBER Working Papers 10126, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Chakraborty, Shankha & Ray, Tridip, 2006. "Bank-based versus market-based financial systems: A growth-theoretic analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 329-350, March.
  5. John H. Boyd & Bruce D. Smith, 1995. "The evolution of debt and equity markets in economic development," Working Papers 542, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  6. Solomon Tadesse, 2001. "Financial Architecture and Economic Performance: International Evidence," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 449, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  7. Sambit Bhattacharyya & Roland Hodler, 2010. "Do Natural Resource Revenues Hinder Financial Development? The role of political Institutions," OxCarre Working Papers 053, Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies, University of Oxford.
  8. Francesco Giavazzi & Guido Tabellini, 2004. "Economic and Political Liberalizations," CESifo Working Paper Series 1249, CESifo Group Munich.
  9. Chakraborty, Shankha & Ray, Tridip, 2007. "The development and structure of financial systems," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(9), pages 2920-2956, September.
  10. Marco Pagano & Paolo Volpin, 2001. "The Political Economy of Finance," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(4), pages 502-519.
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  16. Yang, Benhua, 2011. "Political democratization, economic liberalization, and growth volatility," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 245-259, June.
  17. Sambit Bhattacharyya & Roland Hodler, 2008. "Natural Resources, Democracy and Corruption," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1047, The University of Melbourne.
  18. Hausman, Jerry & Stock, James H. & Yogo, Motohiro, 2005. "Asymptotic properties of the Hahn-Hausman test for weak-instruments," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 333-342, December.
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  23. Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A. & Levine, R., 2007. "Finance, inequality and the poor," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125426, Tilburg University.
  24. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross, 2002. "Industry growth and capital allocation:*1: does having a market- or bank-based system matter?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 147-180, May.
  25. Sambit Bhattacharyya, 2008. "Unbundled Institutions, Human Capital and Growth," Departmental Working Papers 2008-14, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
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Cited by:
  1. Bhattacharyya, Sambit & Hodler, Roland, 2011. "Do Natural Resource Revenues Hinder Financial Development? The Role of Political Institutions," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 11, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.

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