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Schools, Household, Risk, and Gender: Determinants of Child Schooling in Ethiopia

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  • Nazmul Chaudhury
  • Luc Christiaensen
  • Mohammad Niaz Asadullah

Abstract

Drawing upon data from Ethiopia, we highlight the relationship between investments in child schooling and key factors related to household characteristics, supply and quality of schooling, and income shocks. The unique contribution of this study stems from our examination of the effect of adverse income shocks on gender-differentiated child schooling outcomes. While there are several empirical studies that test the degree to which households are able to smooth consumption in response to a covariate shock, only few studies probe the gender-differentiated impacts of those shocks within the household. We find a strong bias against investments in female education in rural Ethiopia. Controlling for key supply and demand side factors such as household income, parental education, distance to and quality of schools, girls who reside in rural areas are almost 12 percent less likely to be enrolled in primary school compared to boys. Furthermore, while an adverse weather-induced crop shock has no discernable impact on the schooling of boys, the same adverse shock has a deleterious impact on both the probability of enrollment and completion of schooling for girls. Besides the impact of adverse income shocks on child schooling, we find that investment in child schooling is significantly influenced by positive education externalities with the household and community, availability and distance to schools, and quality of school infrastructure.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford in its series CSAE Working Paper Series with number 2006-06.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:csa:wpaper:2006-06

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Keywords: Key words: Income shocks; Schooling; Ethiopia.;

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  1. Hanushek, Eric A, 1995. "Interpreting Recent Research on Schooling in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 10(2), pages 227-46, August.
  2. Paul Glewwe, 2002. "Schools and Skills in Developing Countries: Education Policies and Socioeconomic Outcomes," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 436-482, June.
  3. Foster, Andrew D, 1995. "Prices, Credit Markets and Child Growth in Low-Income Rural Areas," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 105(430), pages 551-70, May.
  4. Admassie, A. & Bedi, A.S., 2003. "Attending school : two 'Rs' and child work in rural Ethiopia," ISS Working Papers - General Series, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague 19146, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
  5. Jacoby, Hanan G & Skoufias, Emmanuel, 1997. "Risk, Financial Markets, and Human Capital in a Developing Country," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(3), pages 311-35, July.
  6. Handa, Sudhanshu, 2002. "Raising primary school enrolment in developing countries: The relative importance of supply and demand," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 103-128, October.
  7. Sharada Weir, 2007. "An examination of some mechanisms underlying externality benefits of girls' schooling," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 203-222, February.
  8. Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule To Estimate The Effect Of Class Size On Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575, May.
  9. Kathleen Beegle & Rajeev Dehejia & Roberta Gatti, 2003. "Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints," NBER Working Papers 10088, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Behrman, Jere R & Knowles, James C, 1999. "Household Income and Child Schooling in Vietnam," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 211-56, May.
  11. Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & David R. Ross & Richard Sabot, 1996. "Decomposing the Gender Gap in Cognitive Skills in a Poor Rural Economy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(1), pages 229-254.
  12. Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1982. "A New Test of the Permanent Income Hypothesis: The Impact of Weather on the Income and Consumption of Farm Households in India," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 23(3), pages 583-94, October.
  13. Jere Behrman & James C. Knowles, . "How Strongly is Child Schooling Associated with Household Income?," CARESS Working Papres, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences 97-22, University of Pennsylvania Center for Analytic Research and Economics in the Social Sciences.
  14. Behrman, Jere R, 1996. "The Impact of Health and Nutrition on Education," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 23-37, February.
  15. Elaina Rose, 1999. "Consumption Smoothing and Excess Female Mortality in Rural India," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, MIT Press, vol. 81(1), pages 41-49, February.
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Cited by:
  1. Yoshito Takasaki, 2012. "Do natural disasters decrease the gender gap in schooling?," Tsukuba Economics Working Papers, Economics, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba 2012-001, Economics, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Tsukuba.
  2. Subha Mani & John Hoddinott & John Strauss, 2009. "Determinants of Schooling Outcomes: Empirical Evidence from Rural Ethiopia," Fordham Economics Discussion Paper Series, Fordham University, Department of Economics dp2009-03, Fordham University, Department of Economics.

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