Lifetime income and old age mortality risk in Italy over two decades
AbstractEuropean studies highlight a widening of relative inequalities in general mortality by socioeconomic status from the 1970s to the 1990s. Few studies are available for Southern European countries; they show that these countries represent an exception to these trends. Available evidence on this for Italy is for a specific city only and nationwide evidence does not exist yet. This paper examines the association between lifetime income and old age mortality risk, referred to as the income–mortality gradient, in Italy during the 1980s and 1990s. We investigate the shape of the gradient. Most importantly, we analyze the evolution of the gradient between these two decades. We use data drawn from an administrative pension archive held by the main Italian social security institution and proxy individual lifetime income with pension income. We use non-standard Cox proportional hazard models, where the positions and number of the knots in the spline function for income are determined by the data. The shape of the income–mortality gradient shows two discontinuities for males and one for females; these kink points are situated almost at the same percentiles of the income distribution during the 1980s and the 1990s. The estimated associations are negative and stronger at higher income levels. The income–mortality gradient widens over time for males and remains unchanged for females. Accounting for regional effects explains most of the widening in the gradient over time for males. Our findings show for both males and females that mortality risk decreases with income. Once controlled for regional differences, and in contrast with the trends observed in many other European countries, the relative difference in mortality risk between high and low-income individuals is rather stable over time in Italy.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Center for Research on Pensions and Welfare Policies, Turin (Italy) in its series CeRP Working Papers with number 129.
Length: 24 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2012
Date of revision:
Other versions of this item:
- Michele Belloni & Rob Alessie & Adriaan Kalwij & Chiara Marinacci, 2013. "Lifetime income and old age mortality risk in Italy over two decades," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(45), pages 1261-1298, December.
- Michele Belloni & Rob Alessie & Adriaan Kalwij & Chiara Marinacci, 2012. "Lifetime income and old age mortality risk in Italy over two decades," Working Papers 2012: 29, Department of Economics, University of Venice "Ca' Foscari".
- J10 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - General
- I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Production
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Cristia, Julian P., 2009.
"Rising mortality and life expectancy differentials by lifetime earnings in the United States,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 984-995, September.
- Julian Cristia, 2009. "Rising Mortality and Life Expectancy Differentials by Lifetime Earnings in the United States," Research Department Publications 4607, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Brugiavini, Agar & Galasso, Vincenzo, 2004.
"The social security reform process in Italy: where do we stand?,"
Journal of Pension Economics and Finance,
Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 165-195, July.
- Agar Brugiavini & Vincenzo Galasso, 2003. "The Social Security Reform Process in Italy: Where do We Stand?," Working Papers wp052, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
- Bratti, Massimiliano, 2002.
"Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education,"
Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002
34, Royal Economic Society.
- Massimiliano Bratti, 2003. "Labour force participation and marital fertility of Italian women: The role of education," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 525-554, 08.
- Massimiliano BRATTI, 2001. "Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education," Working Papers 154, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- Gerard J. van den Berg & Maarten Lindeboom & France Portrait, 2007.
"Conjugal Bereavement Effects on Health and Mortality at Advanced Ages,"
Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers
07-009/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- van den Berg, Gerard J. & Lindeboom, Maarten & Portrait, France, 2011. "Conjugal bereavement effects on health and mortality at advanced ages," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 774-794, July.
- van den Berg, Gerard J. & Lindeboom, Maarten & Portrait, France, 2006. "Conjugal Bereavement Effects on Health and Mortality at Advanced Ages," IZA Discussion Papers 2358, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Hans-Martin von Gaudecker & Rembrandt D. Scholz, 2007. "Differential mortality by lifetime earnings in Germany," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 17(4), pages 83-108, August.
- M. Belloni & R. Alessie, 2008.
"The Importance of Financial Incentives on Retirement Choices: New Evidence for Italy,"
08-10, Utrecht School of Economics.
- Belloni, Michele & Alessie, Rob, 2009. "The importance of financial incentives on retirement choices: New evidence for Italy," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 578-588, October.
- Daniel Sullivan & Till von Wachter, 2009. "Average Earnings and Long-Term Mortality: Evidence from Administrative Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 133-38, May.
- Franco Peracchi, 2008.
"Height and Economic Development in Italy, 1730-1980,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 98(2), pages 475-81, May.
- Franco Peracchi, 2008. "Height and Economic Development in Italy, 1730–1980," CEIS Research Paper 108, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 10 Jul 2008.
- Michele Belloni & Carlo Maccheroni, 2013. "Actuarial Fairness When Longevity Increases: An Evaluation of the Italian Pension System," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(4), pages 638-674, October.
- Harriet Orcutt Duleep, 1986. "Measuring the Effect of Income on Adult Mortality Using Longitudinal Administrative Record Data," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(2), pages 238-251.
- Adriaan Kalwij & Rob Alessie & Marike Knoef, 2013. "The Association Between Individual Income and Remaining Life Expectancy at the Age of 65 in the Netherlands," Demography, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 181-206, February.
- Jennifer Montez & Robert Hummer & Mark Hayward, 2012. "Educational Attainment and Adult Mortality in the United States: A Systematic Analysis of Functional Form," Demography, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 315-336, February.
- Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Silvia Maero) The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Silvia Maero to update the entry or send us the correct address.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.