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Finance and Efficiency: Do Bank Branching Regulations Matter?

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  • Acharya, Viral V
  • Imbs, Jean
  • Sturgess, Jason

Abstract

We use portfolio theory to quantify the efficiency of state-level sectoral patterns of production in the United States. On the basis of observed growth in sectoral value-added output, we calculate for each state the efficient frontier for investments in the real economy. We study how rapidly different states converge to this benchmark allocation, depending on access to finance. We find that convergence is faster - in terms of distance to the efficient frontier and improving Sharpe ratios - following intra- and (particularly) interstate liberalization of bank branching restrictions. This effect arises primarily from convergence in the volatility of state output growth, rather than in its average. The realized industry shares of output also converge faster to their efficient counterparts following liberalization, particularly for industries that are characterized by young, small and external finance dependent firms. Convergence is also faster for states that have a larger share of constrained industries and greater distance from the efficient frontier before liberalization. These effects are robust to industries integrating across states and to the endogeneity of liberalization dates. Overall, our results suggest that financial development has important consequences for efficiency and specialization (or diversification) of investments, in a manner that depends crucially on the variance-covariance properties of investment returns, rather than on their average only.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 6202.

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Date of creation: Mar 2007
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:6202

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Keywords: Diversification; Financial Development; Growth; Sharpe Ratio; Volatility;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Michalski, Tomasz & Örs, Evren, 2010. "(Inter-state) Banking and (Inter-state) Trade: Does Real Integration Follow Financial Integration?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7963, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  2. Claessens, Stijn & Ueda, Kenichi & Yafeh, Yishay, 2010. "Financial Frictions, Investment, and Institutions," CEPR Discussion Papers 8170, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Thorsten Beck & Ross Levine & Alexey Levkov, 2007. "Big Bad Banks? The Impact of U.S. Branch Deregulation on Income Distribution," NBER Working Papers 13299, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Manuel Illueca & Lars Norden & Gregory F. Udell, 2009. "Liberalization, Corporate Governance, and Savings Banks," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 17, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
  5. Bonfiglioli, Alessandra, 2008. "Financial integration, productivity and capital accumulation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 337-355, December.
  6. Amore, Mario Daniele & Schneider, Cédric & Žaldokas, Alminas, 2013. "Credit supply and corporate innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 835-855.
  7. Mathias Hoffmann & Iryna Shcherbakova-Stewen, 2011. "Consumption Risk Sharing over the Business Cycle: The Role of Small Firms' Access to Credit Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(4), pages 1403-1416, November.
  8. Kukenova, Madina, 2011. "Financial liberalization and allocative dfficiency of capital," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5670, The World Bank.
  9. Thorsten Beck & Ross Levine & Alexey Levkov, 2010. "Big Bad Banks? The Winners and Losers from Bank Deregulation in the United States," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(5), pages 1637-1667, October.
  10. Yishay Yafeh & Kenichi Ueda & Stijn Claessens, 2010. "Investment and Institutions," 2010 Meeting Papers 513, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  11. Era Dabla-Norris & Narapong Srivisal, 2013. "Revisiting the Link Between Finance and Macroeconomic Volatility," IMF Working Papers 13/29, International Monetary Fund.
  12. Craig P. Aubuchon & David C. Wheelock, 2010. "The geographic distribution and characteristics of U.S. bank failures, 2007-2010: do bank failures still reflect local economic conditions?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 395-415.

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