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Finance and Efficiency: Do Bank Branching Regulations Matter?

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  • Acharya, Viral V
  • Imbs, Jean
  • Sturgess, Jason

Abstract

We use portfolio theory to quantify the efficiency of state-level sectoral patterns of production in the United States. On the basis of observed growth in sectoral value added output, we calculate for each state the efficient frontier for investments in the real economy, the efficient Sharpe ratio, and the corresponding weights on investments in different industries. We study how rapidly different states converge to an efficient allocation, depending on access to finance. We find that convergence is faster - in terms of distance to the efficient frontier and improving Sharpe ratios - following intra- and (particularly) interstate liberalization of bank branching restrictions. This effect arises primarily from convergence in the volatility of state output growth, rather than in its average. The realized industry shares of output also converge faster to their efficient counterparts following liberalization, particularly for industries that are characterized by young, small and external finance dependent firms. Convergence is also faster for states that have a larger share of constrained industries, greater distance from the efficient frontier before liberalization and larger geographical area. These effects are robust to industries integrating across states and the endogeneity of liberalization dates. Overall, our results suggest that financial development has important consequences for the efficiency and specialization (or diversification) of investments, in a manner that depends crucially on the variance-covariance properties of investment returns, rather than on their average only.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 6029.

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Date of creation: Jan 2007
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:6029

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Keywords: Diversification; Financial development; Growth; Sharpe ratio; Volatility;

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Manuel Illueca & Lars Norden & Gregory F. Udell, 2009. "Liberalization, Corporate Governance, and Savings Banks," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 17, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
  2. Yishay Yafeh & Kenichi Ueda & Stijn Claessens, 2010. "Financial Frictions, Investment, and Institutions," IMF Working Papers 10/231, International Monetary Fund.
  3. Alessandra Bonfiglioli, 2006. "Financial integration, productivity and capital accumulation," Economics Working Papers 988, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
  4. Beck, T.H.L. & Levine, R. & Levkov, A., 2007. "Big bad banks? The impact of U.S. branch deregulation on income distribution," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3508402, Tilburg University.
  5. Mathias Hoffmann & Iryna Shcherbakova-Stewen, 2011. "Consumption Risk Sharing over the Business Cycle: The Role of Small Firms' Access to Credit Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(4), pages 1403-1416, November.
  6. Michalski, Tomasz & Örs, Evren, 2010. "(Inter-state) Banking and (Inter-state) Trade: Does Real Integration Follow Financial Integration?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7963, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Craig P. Aubuchon & David C. Wheelock, 2010. "The geographic distribution and characteristics of U.S. bank failures, 2007-2010: do bank failures still reflect local economic conditions?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 395-415.
  8. Yishay Yafeh & Kenichi Ueda & Stijn Claessens, 2010. "Investment and Institutions," 2010 Meeting Papers 513, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  9. Beck, T.H.L. & Levine, R. & Levkov, A., 2009. "Big Bad Banks? The Winners and Losers From Bank Deregulation in the United States," Discussion Paper 2009-56, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  10. Amore, Mario Daniele & Schneider, Cédric & Žaldokas, Alminas, 2013. "Credit supply and corporate innovation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(3), pages 835-855.
  11. Kukenova, Madina, 2011. "Financial liberalization and allocative dfficiency of capital," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5670, The World Bank.
  12. Era Dabla-Norris & Narapong Srivisal, 2013. "Revisiting the Link Between Finance and Macroeconomic Volatility," IMF Working Papers 13/29, International Monetary Fund.

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