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Quid Pro Quo in IPOs: Why Book-Building is Dominating Auctions

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  • Degeorge, François
  • Derrien, Francois
  • Womack, Kent L

Abstract

The book-building procedure for selling initial public offerings to investors has captured significant market share from auction alternatives in recent years, despite significantly lower costs in both direct fees and initial underpricing when using the auction mechanism. This Paper shows that in the French market, where the frequency of book-building and auctions was about equal in the 1990s, the ostensible advantages to the issuer using book-building were advertising-related quid pro quo benefits. Specifically, we find that book-built issues were more likely to be followed and positively recommended by the lead underwriters and were also more likely to receive ‘booster shots’ post-issuance if the shares had fallen. Even non-underwriters’ analysts appear to promote book-built issues more, but only when their underwriters stood to gain from acquiring shares in future issues from the recommended firm’s lead underwriter. Book-built issues also appeared to garner more press in general (but only after they had chosen book-building, not before). Yet, we do not observe valuation or return differentials to suggest these types of promotion have any value to the issuing firm. We conclude that underwriters using the book-building procedure have convinced issuers of the questionable value of advertising and promotion of their shares.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 4462.

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Date of creation: Jun 2004
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:4462

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Keywords: auctions; book building; IPOs;

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References

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  1. Womack, Kent L, 1996. " Do Brokerage Analysts' Recommendations Have Investment Value?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 137-67, March.
  2. Aggarwal, Rajesh K. & Krigman, Laurie & Womack, Kent L., 2002. "Strategic IPO underpricing, information momentum, and lockup expiration selling," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 105-137, October.
  3. Hsuan-Chi Chen & Jay R. Ritter, 2000. "The Seven Percent Solution," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1105-1131, 06.
  4. Loughran, Tim & Ritter, Jay R. & Rydqvist, Kristian, 1994. "Initial public offerings: International insights," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 2(2-3), pages 165-199, May.
  5. Kenji Kutsuna, 2004. "Why Does Book Building Drive Out Auction Methods of IPO Issuance? Evidence from Japan," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 17(4), pages 1129-1166.
  6. Dunbar, Craig G., 2000. "Factors affecting investment bank initial public offering market share," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 3-41, January.
  7. Ljungqvist, Alexander P & Marston, Felicia & Wilhelm Jr, William J, 2003. "Competing for Securities Underwriting Mandates: Banking Relationships and Analyst Recommendations," CEPR Discussion Papers 4162, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Bruno Biais & Peter Bossaerts & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2002. "An Optimal IPO Mechanism," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(1), pages 117-146.
  9. Daniel J. Bradley & Bradford D. Jordan & Jay R. Ritter, 2003. "The Quiet Period Goes out with a Bang," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(1), pages 1-36, 02.
  10. Krigman, Laurie & Shaw, Wayne H. & Womack, Kent L., 2001. "Why do firms switch underwriters?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 245-284, May.
  11. Sherman, Ann E, 2000. "IPOs and Long-Term Relationships: An Advantage of Book Building," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 13(3), pages 697-714.
  12. Biais, Bruno & Faugeron-Crouzet, Anne Marie, 2002. "IPO Auctions: English, Dutch, ... French, and Internet," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 9-36, January.
  13. Benveniste, Lawrence M. & Spindt, Paul A., 1989. "How investment bankers determine the offer price and allocation of new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 343-361.
  14. FranÁois Derrien & Kent L. Womack, 2003. "Auctions vs. Bookbuilding and the Control of Underpricing in Hot IPO Markets," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(1), pages 31-61.
  15. Daniel Kahneman & Dan Lovallo, 1993. "Timid Choices and Bold Forecasts: A Cognitive Perspective on Risk Taking," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(1), pages 17-31, January.
  16. Habib, Michel A & Ljungqvist, Alexander P, 2001. "Underpricing and Entrepreneurial Wealth Losses in IPOs: Theory and Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(2), pages 433-58.
  17. Michaely, Roni & Womack, Kent L, 1999. "Conflict of Interest and the Credibility of Underwriter Analyst Recommendations," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 12(4), pages 653-86.
  18. Tim Loughran & Jay Ritter, 2004. "Why Has IPO Underpricing Changed Over Time?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 33(3), Fall.
  19. Daniel J. Bradley & Bradford D. Jordan & Jay R. Ritter, 2008. "Analyst Behavior Following IPOs: The 'Bubble Period' Evidence," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 21(1), pages 101-133, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Guray Kucukkocaoglu & Ozge Sezgin Alp, 2012. "IPO mechanism selection by using Classification and Regression Trees," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 46(3), pages 873-888, April.
  2. Florence Labégorre & Carole Gresse & Jean-François Gajewski & Emmanuel Boutron, 2006. "Les procédures d’introduction en Bourse en Europe : évolution des pratiques et perspectives," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 82(1), pages 99-115.
  3. Florence Labégorre & Carole Gresse & Jean-François Gajewski & Emmanuel Boutron, 2006. "IPO procedures in Europe : the development of practices and perspectives," Revue d'Économie Financière, Programme National Persée, vol. 82(1), pages 89-105.
  4. Cook, Douglas O. & Kieschnick, Robert & Van Ness, Robert A., 2006. "On the marketing of IPOs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 35-61, October.

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