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Discrimination in the Swiss Labour Market: an Empirical Analysis

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  • Golder, Stefan M.
  • Straubhaar, Thomas

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that there are significant earnings differentials between immigrants and natives in Switzerland. The goal of this paper is to determine whether these differences can be attributed to diverging socio-economic endowments or to discrimination. We use the well-known econometric technique, developed by Oaxaca (1973) and Blinder (1973), to determine the extent of discrimination. As data on earnings are available only for employed, we adopt a two-stage Heckman procedure to correct for sample selection-bias. Our analysis is based on data from the 1995 wave of the Swiss Labour Force Survey (SLFS). The earnings difference decomposition between natives and immigrants reveals that the discrimination effect plays a more important role in the explanation of the earnings differentials than the endowment effect.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 2100.

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Date of creation: Mar 1999
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:2100

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Keywords: Discrimination; immigrant workers; International Migration; Wage Differentials;

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References

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  1. David Neumark, 1988. "Employers' Discriminatory Behavior and the Estimation of Wage Discrimination," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(3), pages 279-295.
  2. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Golder, Stefan M. & Straubhaar, Thomas, 1998. "Migration to Switzerland: Some New Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 1791, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Nielsen, H.S., 1998. "Two Notes of Discrimination and Decomposition," Papers 98-01, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
  5. Heckman, James J, 1974. "Shadow Prices, Market Wages, and Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(4), pages 679-94, July.
  6. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  7. Velling, Johannes, 1995. "Wage discrimination and occupational segregation of foreign male workers in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 95-04, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  8. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  9. Jenkins, Stephen P., 1994. "Earnings discrimination measurement : A distributional approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 81-102, March.
  10. Cotton, Jeremiah, 1988. "On the Decomposition of Wage Differentials," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(2), pages 236-43, May.
  11. Andreas Diekmann & Henriette Engelhardt, 1995. "Einkommensungleichheit zwischen Frauen und Männern. Eine ökonometrische Analyse der Schweizer Arbeitskräfteerhebung," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 131(I), pages 57-83, March.
  12. Peter Kugler, 1988. "Lohndiskriminierung in der Schweiz: Evidenz von Mikrodaten," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 124(I), pages 23-47, March.
  13. Puhani, Patrick A, 2000. " The Heckman Correction for Sample Selection and Its Critique," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 53-68, February.
  14. Dorothe Bonjour & Michael Gerfin, 1995. "Einkommensungleichheit zwischen Frauen und Männern. Eine ökonomische Analyse der Schweizer Arbeitskräfteerhebung: Kommentar," Diskussionsschriften dp9503, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
  15. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
  16. Reimers, Cordelia W, 1983. "Labor Market Discrimination against Hispanic and Black Men," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 65(4), pages 570-79, November.
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