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Prevalence and substitution effects in tobacco consumption: A discrete choice analysis of panel data

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  • Knut R. Wangen

    ()
    (Statistics Norway)

  • Erik Biørn

    ()
    (University of Oslo)

Abstract

This paper analyzes tobacco demand within a discrete choice framework. Using binomial and multinomial logit models with random effects, and an unbalanced panel data set of Norwegian households over a twenty year period, we first consider the decisions a) whether to smoke or not, and b) given the choice is to smoke, whether to smoke hand rolled or manufactured cigarettes. Next, we consider a multinomial logit framework, in which the households choose between no tobacco, only manufactured cigarettes, only hand rolled cigarettes, and a combination of manufactured and hand rolled cigarettes. In this process, we utilize the potential offered by panel data to investigate unobserved heterogeneity, which is crucial for commodities where consumers have different tastes and where users tend to become addicted. Using Maximum Likelihood in combination with bootstrap estimation of standard errors, we find that income and prices influence the 'type of tobacco choice probabilities' at least as strongly as the 'smoking/non-smoking probabilities'. Cet.par., an increase in the price of manufactured cigarettes could lead consumers to switch to hand rolled cigarettes, rather than quit smoking. Socio-demographic variables seem to be at least as important in explaining the discrete aspects of tobacco consumption as income and prices. Finally, we find significant unobserved household specific effects in the smoking pattern.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International Conferences on Panel Data in its series 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 with number C4-3.

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Date of creation: Mar 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cpd:pd2002:c4-3

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Keywords: Tobacco. Discrete choice. Panel data. Logit analysis. Heterogeneity. Bootstrapping;

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  1. Richard B. Howarth & Kjell Arne Brekke, 1998. "Status Preferences and Economic Growth," Discussion Papers 240, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  2. Daniel Miles, . "The probability that a smoker does not purchase tobacco: A note," Studies on the Spanish Economy 15, FEDEA.
  3. Joel L. Horowitz, 1996. "Bootstrap Methods in Econometrics: Theory and Numerical Performance," Econometrics 9602009, EconWPA, revised 05 Mar 1996.
  4. Nielsen, H.S. & Rosholm, M., 1997. "The Incidence of Unemployment: Identifying Quit and Layoffs," Papers 97-15, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research, Danmark-.
  5. Knut R. Wangen & Erik Biørn, 2001. "Individual Heterogeneity and Price Responses in Tobacco Consumption: A Two-Commodity Analysis of Unbalanced Panel Data," Discussion Papers 294, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  6. Kjell Arne Brekke & Richard B. Howarth & Karine Nyborg, 1998. "Are there Social Limits to Growth?," Discussion Papers 239, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  7. Frank J. Chaloupka & Kenneth E. Warner, 1999. "The Economics of Smoking," NBER Working Papers 7047, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. McFadden, Daniel L., 1984. "Econometric analysis of qualitative response models," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 24, pages 1395-1457 Elsevier.
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Cited by:
  1. Knut Wangen & Erik Biørn, 2006. "How do consumers switch between close substitutes when price variation is small? The case of cigarette types," Spanish Economic Review, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 239-253, December.

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