The bank debit tax in Colombia
AbstractIntroduction. Colombia has had a bank debit tax (BDT) since 1998. It was originally enacted as a temporary measure to finance the bailout of bankrupt financial institutions. The BDT is one variant of the broader class of taxes on financial transactions. The Colombian BDT, known formally as the Gravamen a los Movimientos Financieros (GMF), is a tax on withdrawals from savings and checking accounts, credit card transactions, loan disbursements, and certain other transactions. It was originally imposed at a 0.2 percent rate, and increased to 0.3 percent and made permanent in 2001. The tax is an important source of tax revenue to Colombia, contributing revenues equal to about 0.8 percent of GDP. The tax is similar in concept to the currency transactions tax proposed by Nobel Laureate James Tobin in the late seventies.1 Although Tobin’s proposal sought to reduce the volatility of international financial markets, Latin American countries have been attracted to the BDT primarily because it raises a lot of money at what seems to be a low tax rate (Coelho et.al. 2001). Although all taxes have costs, the BDT may be especially burdensome. The BDT is a tax on financial intermediation. As such, it tends to encourage disintermediation. The tax is also tantamount to a cascading sales tax in sectors of the economy that use the banking system to facilitate transactions. Both of these factors create efficiency costs for the Colombian economy. This paper examines the economic effects of the BDT in Colombia through its effects on cash demand, net interest margins and profitability of financial intermediaries, and using a general equilibrium model to estimate the welfare cost in the real sector. A concluding section makes policy recommendations.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by FEDESARROLLO in its series WORKING PAPERS SERIES. DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO with number 003565.
Date of creation: 20 Dec 2002
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Craig S. Hakkio, 1994. "Should we throw sand in the gears of financial markets?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q II, pages 17-30.
- Karl Friedrich Habermeier & Andrei Kirilenko, 2001. "Securities Transaction Taxes and Financial Markets," IMF Working Papers 01/51, International Monetary Fund.
- Beck, T.H.L. & Levine, R. & Loayza, N., 2000.
"Finance and the sources of growth,"
Open Access publications from Tilburg University
urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125520, Tilburg University.
- Pedro Albuquerque, 2006.
"BAD taxation: Disintermediation and illiquidity in a bank account debits tax model,"
International Tax and Public Finance,
Springer, vol. 13(5), pages 601-624, September.
- Pedro H. Albuquerque, 2005. "BAD Taxation: Disintermediation and Illiquidity in a Bank Account Debits Tax Model," Public Economics 0511019, EconWPA, revised 27 Nov 2005.
- Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 1998.
"Determinants of commercial bank interest margins and profitability : some international evidence,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1900, The World Bank.
- Demirguc, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 1999. "Determinants of Commercial Bank Interest Margins and Profitability: Some International Evidence," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(2), pages 379-408, May.
- Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman & Beck, Thorsten, 2000.
"Financial intermediation and growth: Causality and causes,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 31-77, August.
- Ross Levine & Norman Loayza & Thorsten Beck, 2002. "Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Leonardo Hernández & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (S (ed.), Banking, Financial Integration, and International Crises, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 2, pages 031-084 Central Bank of Chile.
- Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman & Beck, Thorsten, 1999. "Financial intermediation and growth : Causality and causes," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2059, The World Bank.
- Thorsten Beck & Ross Levine & Norman Loayza, 1999. "Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 56, Central Bank of Chile.
- Beck, T.H.L. & Levine, R. & Loayza, N., 2000. "Financial intermediation and growth: Causality and causes," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125519, Tilburg University.
- Stiglitz, J.E., 1989. "Using Tax Policy To Curb Speculative Short-Term Trading," Papers t2, Columbia - Center for Futures Markets.
- Adolfo Barajas & Roberto Steiner, 2002. "Credit Stagnation in Latin America," IMF Working Papers 02/53, International Monetary Fund.
- Isaias Coelho & Victoria P. Summers & Liam P. Ebrill, 2001. "Bank Debit Taxes in Latin America," IMF Working Papers 01/67, International Monetary Fund.
- Summers, L.H. & Summers, V.P., 1989. "When Financial Markets Work Too Well : A Cautious Case For A Securities Transactions Tax," Papers t12, Columbia - Center for Futures Markets.
- Ignacio Lozano E. & Jorge Ramos F., 2000.
"ANÁLISIS SOBRE LA INCIDENCIA DEL IMPUESTO DEL 2 x 1000 A LAS TRANSACCIONES FINANCIERAS,"
BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA
001999, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
- Ignacio Lozano & Jorge Ramos, . "Análisis sobre la Incidencia del Impuesto del 2x1000 a las Transacciones Financieras," Borradores de Economia 143, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
- Frankel, Jeffrey & Rose, Andrew K., 2001.
"An Estimate of the Effect of Common Currencies on Trade and Income,"
Working Paper Series
rwp01-013, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Jeffrey Frankel & Andrew Rose, 2002. "An Estimate Of The Effect Of Common Currencies On Trade And Income," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(2), pages 437-466, May.
- Robert J. Shiller, 1980.
"Do Stock Prices Move Too Much to be Justified by Subsequent Changes in Dividends?,"
NBER Working Papers
0456, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Shiller, Robert J, 1981. "Do Stock Prices Move Too Much to be Justified by Subsequent Changes in Dividends?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(3), pages 421-36, June.
- Janet Gale Stotsky & Parthasrathi Shome, 1995. "Financial Transactions Taxes," IMF Working Papers 95/77, International Monetary Fund.
- Chia, Ngee-Choon & Whalley, John, 1999. "The Tax Treatment of Financial Intermediation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(4), pages 704-19, November.
- World Bank, 2005. "Colombia : Public Expenditure Review," World Bank Other Operational Studies 8559, The World Bank.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lucía Fenney Pérez).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.