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Costos de la violencia urbana y políticas públicas: algunas lecciones de Medellín

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  • Carlos Medina

    ()

  • Christian Posso

    ()

  • Jorge Andrés Tamayo

    ()

Abstract

Este artículo describe la evolución y los principales determinantes de los homicidios en Medellín en los últimos 30 años, destacando el papel del narcotráfico en la financiación del crimen organizado presente en Medellín y otras ciudades del país y América Latina. Se enumeran y cuantifican varios de los principales costos sociales del crimen, enfatizando los costos sociales asociados a la vida diaria de los jóvenes de los barrios en conflicto, que en Medellín podrían abarcar a más de la mitad de la población, y los costos en dimensiones más amplias como la satisfacción con la vida. Se resaltan los efectos perdurables sobre la tasa de homicidios de la ciudad que tuvo el proceso de desmovilización de paramilitares, a pesar de la rápida capacidad que tiene el crimen organizado de reinventarse y reactivarse. La reevaluación de una intervención militar masiva orientada a erradicar grupos delincuenciales de una zona de la ciudad, denominada Operación Orión, revela que la misma solamente habría disminuido la tasa de homicidios en el corto plazo. No obstante los altos costos que gran parte de la ciudadanía paga por cuenta del conflicto, se describe la falta de sensibilización a la ciudadanía por parte de los hacedores de política, y las consecuencias que esta situación implica en la construcción de consensos en torno al salto en intervenciones que se requiere dar para enfrentar la situación.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA in its series BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA with number 009076.

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Length: 42
Date of creation: 10 Oct 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:col:000094:009076

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Keywords: Crimen; seguridad nacional y conflicto; relaciones intergubernamentales.;

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References

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  1. Alejandro Gaviria & Carlos Medina & Leonardo Morales & Jairo Núñez, 2010. "The Cost of Avoiding Crime: The Case of Bogotá," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 101-132 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Soares, Rodrigo R., 2006. "The welfare cost of violence across countries," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 821-846, September.
  3. Gaviria, Alejandro, 1998. "Increasing Returns and the Evolution of Violent Crime: The Case of Columbia," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt6x42726z, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  4. Bernard M.S. van Praag & Néstor Gandelman & Ada Ferrer-i-Carbonell & Andrés Ham & Eduardo Lora & Martín Tetaz & Carlos Medina & Pablo Sanguinetti & Guillermo Cruces & Giorgina Piani & Lorena Alcáz, . "The Quality of Life in Latin American Cities: Markets and Perception," IDB Publications 60258, Inter-American Development Bank.
  5. Carlos Medina & Christian Posso & Jorge Andrés Tamayo, 2011. "Costos de la violencia urbana y políticas públicas: algunas lecciones de Medellín," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 009076, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  6. Nattavudh Powdthavee, 2003. "Unhappiness and Crime: Evidence from South Africa," Development and Comp Systems 0310003, EconWPA, revised 17 Mar 2004.
  7. Leonardo Morales, 2013. "Peers Effects on a Fertility Decision: an Application for Medellín Colombia," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 010975, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  8. Mark A. Cohen, 2008. "The Effect of Crime on Life Satisfaction," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(S2), pages S325-S353, 06.
  9. Rodrigo Reis Soares, 2010. "Welfare Costs of Crime and Common Violence: A Critical Review," Textos para discussão 581, Department of Economics PUC-Rio (Brazil).
  10. Eduardo Lora & Andrew Powell & Bernard M.S. van Praag & Pablo Sanguinetti, 2010. "The Quality of Life in Latin American Cities : Markets and Perception," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2452, October.
  11. Carlos Medina & Jorge Andrés Tamayo, 2011. "An Assessment of How Urban Crime and Victimization Affects Life Satisfaction," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 007876, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  12. Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J., 2004. "Well-being over time in Britain and the USA," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(7-8), pages 1359-1386, July.
  13. Clark, Andrew E & Oswald, Andrew J, 1994. "Unhappiness and Unemployment," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(424), pages 648-59, May.
  14. Alejandro Gaviria & Carlos Medina & Jorge Andres Tamayo, . "Assessing the Link between Adolescent Fertility and Urban Crime," Borradores de Economia 594, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  15. Alex Michalos & Bruno Zumbo, 2000. "Criminal Victimization and the Quality of Life," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 50(3), pages 245-295, June.
  16. Rodrigo R. Soares & Joana Naritomi, 2010. "Understanding High Crime Rates in Latin America: The Role of Social and Policy Factors," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 19-55 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Carlos Medina & Jorge Andrés Tamayo & Christian Posso, 2013. "The Effect of Adult Criminals´ Spillovers On the Likelihood of Youths Becoming Criminals," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 010461, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  2. Carlos Medina & Christian Posso & Jorge Andrés Tamayo, . "Costos de la violencia urbana y políticas públicas: algunas lecciones de Medellín," Borradores de Economia 674, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  3. Arlen Guarin & Carlos Medina & Jorge Andres Tamayo, 2013. "The Effects of Punishment of Crime in Colombia on Deterrence, Incapacitation, and Human Capital Formation," Research Department Publications IDB-WP-420, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  4. Camilo Alberto Cárdenas Hurtado & María Alejandra Hernández Montes & Jhon Edwar Torres Gorron, 2014. "An Exploratory Analysis of Heterogeneity on Regional Labour Markets and Unemployment Rates in Colombia: An MFACT approach," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 011122, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  5. Catalina Gómez Toro & Hermilson Velásquez & Joaquín Andrés Urrego & Juan David Valderrama, 2014. "Efecto de los Ingresos Permanentes sobre el Delito: Un Enfoque Espacial y un Caso de Aplicación," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO CIEF 010900, UNIVERSIDAD EAFIT.
  6. Andrés Sánchez Jabba, 2012. "La reinvención de Medellín," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO SOBRE ECONOMÍA REGIONAL 010058, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA - ECONOMÍA REGIONAL.

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