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Países en desarrollo y globalización: ¿Gandores o Perdedores?

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  • Marcela Anzola

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Abstract

El comercio internacional y los flujos de inversión se han incrementado en las últimas déca-das más rápidamente que el producto interno bruto mundial. Este rápido crecimiento de las transacciones internacionales se conoce comúnmente como globalización. Este fenómeno puede ser visto como un dinamizador del crecimiento y desarrollo, en la medida en que los países tiendan a especializarse en la producción de aquellos bienes en los que tienen ventaja comparativa. Otros, por el contrario, argumentan que la globalización no ha contribuido al crecimiento mundial de manera homogénea, beneficiando solo a un número pequeño de países y dando lugar a la concentración de los flujos de comercio e inversión y a grandes inequiidades. La evidencia muestra, sin embargo, que los efectos de la globalización en los países en desarrollo dependen de diversos factores, especialmente de las características de los países y de las regiones. Las ganancias en bienestar se deben más a las medidas de liberalización implementadas por los países, que a las concesiones de comercio otorgadas por los socios comerciales. Así mismo, la marginalización de algunos países de los mercados mundiales no esson inherentes al proceso de globalización. Esta se puede explicar más que todo por el tipo de políticas domesticas implementadas por estos países. Algunos países en desarrollo han sido bastante exitosos en la implementación de una estrategia de desarrollo basada en la IED. En estos casos, las inversiones se han asociado con la rápida industrialización y una concomitante expansión de las exportaciones con alto valor tecnológico. ************************************************************************************************************* International trade and investment flows have increased more rapidly than world GDP over the last two decades. This rapid growth of international transactions has commonly been referred to as globalisation. This phenomenon may be seen as a source of efficiency gains and growth, as countries tend to specialise in the production of goods in which they have a com-parative advantage. However, it has also been argued that globalisation has not contributed to overall world growth, but only benefited a small number of countries and has leaded to a concentration of trade and investment flows and greater inequality. Evidence has shown, that the effects of globalisation on developing countries depend on many factors, especially on countries or region’s characteristics. Welfare gains are largely due to the countries’ own lib-eralisation measures, rather than to trade concessions by their foreign trade partners, and marginalisation of some countries from world markets are not inherent to the globalisation process. It can be mostly explained by inward-looking domestic policies. Certain developing countries have been highly successfully in building a developmental strategy based on foreign investment in their economies. In these cases, inward investment has been associated with rapid industrialisation and a concomitant expansion of increasingly technologically-sophisticated manufactured exports.

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Paper provided by UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO in its series BORRADORES DE INVESTIGACIÓN with number 003974.

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Length: 29
Date of creation: 31 Aug 2006
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Handle: RePEc:col:000091:003974

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  1. Oecd, 1998. "Survey of OECD Work on International Investment," OECD Working Papers on International Investment 1998/1, OECD Publishing.
  2. K. H. O'Rourke, 2001. "Globalization and Inequality: Historical Trends," CEG Working Papers 20015, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  3. Peter H. Lindert & Jeffrey G. Williamson, 2003. "Does Globalization Make the World More Unequal?," NBER Chapters, in: Globalization in Historical Perspective, pages 227-276 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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