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Gender Wage Gaps By Education In Spain: Glass Floors Vs. Glass Ceilings

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  • Juan J. Dolado

    ()

  • Vanesa Llorens

    ()
    (CEMFI, Centro de Estudios Monetarios y Financieros)

Abstract

This paper analyses the gender wage gaps by education throughout the wage distribution in Spain. Quantile regressions are used to estimate the wage returns to the different characteristics at the more relevant percentiles. A correction for the selection bias is included for the group of less educated women. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition is then implemented at each quantile in order to estimate the component of the gender gap not explained by differences in characteristics. Our main findings are twofold. On the one hand, when dealing with the group with tertiary education, we find higher discrimination at the top than at the bottom of the distribution, in accordance with the conventional "glass ceiling" hypothesis. On the other, for the group with primary and secondary education, the converse result holds, pointing out to the existence of lower wages for women at the bottom of the distribution due to their prospects of lower job stability, a phenomenon that we refer to as "glass floors".

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CEMFI in its series Working Papers with number wp2004_03.

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Date of creation: Feb 2004
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cmf:wpaper:wp2004_03

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Keywords: Gender gap; quantile regressions; glass ceilings; glass floors.;

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References

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  3. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," NBER Working Papers 7732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  7. Angel López-Nicolás & Jaume García & Pedro J. Hernández, 2001. "How wide is the gap? An investigation of gender wage differences using quantile regression," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 149-167.
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  9. Jacob Mincer & Solomon Polachek, 1974. "Family Investments in Human Capital: Earnings of Women," NBER Chapters, in: Marriage, Family, Human Capital, and Fertility, pages 76-110 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Andrew Newell & Barry Reilly, 2000. "The Gender Pay Gap in the Transition from Communism: Some Empirical Evidence," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 305, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  11. Moshe Buchinsky, 1998. "Recent Advances in Quantile Regression Models: A Practical Guideline for Empirical Research," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 33(1), pages 88-126.
  12. Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
  13. Ugidos Olazabal, Arantza & Gardeazabal, Javier, 2003. "A Measure of Gender Wage Discrimination at Quantiles," DFAEII Working Papers 2002-16, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
  14. Newey, Whitney K & Powell, James L & Walker, James R, 1990. "Semiparametric Estimation of Selection Models: Some Empirical Results," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(2), pages 324-28, May.
  15. Polachek, Solomon William, 1981. "Occupational Self-Selection: A Human Capital Approach to Sex Differences in Occupational Structure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 63(1), pages 60-69, February.
  16. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Marisa Bucheli & Graciela Sanroman, 2004. "Salarios Femeninos en el Uruguay ¿Existe un Techo de Cristal?," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 0504, Department of Economics - dECON.
  2. Llorens, Vanessa & De la Rica Goiricelaya, Sara & Dolado, Juan J., 2004. "Ceilings and Floors? Gender Wage Gaps by Education in Spain," DFAEII Working Papers 2005-01, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
  3. Wiji Arulampalam & Alison Booth & Mark L. Bryan, 2006. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution," CEPR Discussion Papers 510, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
  4. Aleix Calveras & Juan-José Ganuza & Gerard Llobet, 2005. "Regulation And Opportunism: How Much Activism Do We Need?," Working Papers wp2005_0508, CEMFI.
  5. Jean-Louis Arcand & Béatrice D'hombres, 2004. "Racial discrimination in the Brazilian labour market: wage, employment and segregation effects," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(8), pages 1053-1066.
  6. Juan-José Ganuza & Gerard Llobet & Beatriz Domínguez, 2009. "R& D in the Pharmaceutical Industry: A World of Small Innovations," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(4), pages 539-551, April.
  7. Krishna Pendakur & Ravi Pendakur, 2007. "Minority Earnings Disparity Across the Distribution," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 33(1), pages 41-62, March.
  8. Ceron, Jose A. & Suarez, Javier, 2006. "Hot and Cold Housing Markets: International Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 5411, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Elizalde, Abel & Repullo, Rafael, 2004. "Economic and Regulatory Capital: What is the Difference?," CEPR Discussion Papers 4770, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

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