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Why Did the SSI-Disabled Program Grow So Much? Disentangling the Effect of Medicaid

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  • Aaron Yelowitz

    (UCLA)

Abstract

The number of participants in the SSI program grew by 1.1 million from 1987 to 1993. This paper examines the role of Medicaid on the SSI participation decision. I use the rapid growth in average Medicaid expenditure as a proxy for its value. OLS estimates of Medicaid's effect may be biased because of omitted variables bias and measurement error. I therefore apply two-stage least squares to estimate Medicaid's effect, using average Medicaid expenditure for blind SSI recipients as an instrument. These estimates show that rising Medicaid expenditure significantly increased SSI participation among adults with low permanent incomes, explaining 20 percent of the growth.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by UCLA Department of Economics in its series UCLA Economics Working Papers with number 748.

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Date of creation: 01 Feb 1996
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Handle: RePEc:cla:uclawp:748

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Web page: http://www.econ.ucla.edu/

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  1. James J. Heckman & Thomas E. MaCurdy, 1985. "A Simultaneous Equations Linear Probability Model," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 18(1), pages 28-37, February.
  2. Barbara L. Wolfe & Steven C. Hill, 1995. "The Effect of Health on the Work Effort of Single Mothers," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(1), pages 42-62.
  3. Angrist, Joshua D & Krueger, Alan B, 1991. "Does Compulsory School Attendance Affect Schooling and Earnings?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 106(4), pages 979-1014, November.
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  5. Gruber, J. & Currie, J., 1994. "Saving Babies: The Efficacy and Cost of Recent Expansions of Medicaid Eligibility for Pregnant Women," Working papers 94-11, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  6. Janet Currie & Jonathan Gruber & Michael Fischer, 1994. "Physician Payments and Infant Mortality: Evidence from Medicaid Fee Policy," NBER Working Papers 4930, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Aaron Yelowitz, 1995. "The Medicaid Notch, Labor Supply and Welfare Participation: Evidence from Eligibility Expansions," UCLA Economics Working Papers 738, UCLA Department of Economics.
  8. Moffitt, Robert, 1983. "An Economic Model of Welfare Stigma," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1023-35, December.
  9. Jeff Grogger & Stephen G. Bronars, 1997. "The Effect of Welfare Payments on the Marriage and Fertility Behavior of Unwed Mothers: Results from a Twins Experiment," NBER Working Papers 6047, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. B. Wolfe & S. C. Hill, . "The effect of health on the work effort of low-income single mothers," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 979-92, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
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  12. Lundberg, S. & Plotnick, R.D., 1994. "Adolescent Premarital Childbearing: Do Economic Incentives Matters?," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 94-4, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
  13. Rebecca M. Blank, 1989. "The Effect of Medical Need and Medicaid on AFDC Participation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(1), pages 54-87.
  14. Robert Moffitt & David Ribar & Mark Wilhelm, 1998. "The Decline of Welfare Benefits in the US: The Role of Wage Inequality," Economics Working Paper Archive 373, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics.
  15. Brigitte C. Madrian, 1993. "Employment-Based Health Insurance and Job Mobility: Is There Evidence ofJob-Lock?," NBER Working Papers 4476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Robert Moffitt & Barbara Wolfe, 1990. "The Effect of the Medicaid Program on Welfare Participation and Labor Supply," NBER Working Papers 3286, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  17. Anne E. Winkler, 1991. "The Incentive Effects of Medicaid on Women's Labor Supply," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(2), pages 308-337.
  18. Yelowitz, Aaron S, 2000. "Using the Medicare Buy-In Program to Estimate the Effect of Medicaid on SSI Participation," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 38(3), pages 419-41, July.
  19. R. A. Moffitt, . "The effect of work and training programs on entry and exit from the welfare caseload," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1025-93, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
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Cited by:
  1. Elizabeth T. Powers & David Neumark, 2003. "The Supplemental Security Income Program and Incentives to Claim Social Security Retirement Early: Empirical Evidence from Matched SIPP and Social Security Administrative Files," Working Papers wp036, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
  2. Akinori Tomohara & Ho Lee, 2007. "Did State Children’s Health Insurance Program Affect Married Women’s Labor Supply?," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 668-683, December.
  3. Elizabeth Powers & David Neumark, 2001. "The Supplemental Security Income Program and Incentives to Take Up Social Security Early Retirement: Empirical Evidence from Matched SIPP and Social.," NBER Working Papers 8670, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Brigitte C. Madrian, 2005. "The U.S. health care system and labor markets," Conference Series ; [Proceedings], Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, vol. 50(Jun), pages 137-163.
  5. Aaron Yelowitz, 1996. "Using the Medicare Buy-In Program to Estimate the Effect of Medicaid on SSI - Participation," UCLA Economics Working Papers 753, UCLA Department of Economics.
  6. Jonathan Gruber & Brigitte C. Madrian, 2002. "Health Insurance, Labor Supply, and Job Mobility: A Critical Review of the Literature," NBER Working Papers 8817, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Todd Elder & Elizabeth Powers, 2006. "Public Health Insurance and SSI Program Participation Among the Aged," Working Papers wp117, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
  8. Jonathan Gruber, 1996. "Health Insurance for Poor Women and Children in the U.S.: Lessons from the Past Decade," NBER Working Papers 5831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Bruce D. Meyer & James X. Sullivan, 2001. "The Effects of Welfare and Tax Reform: The Material Well-Being of Single Mothers in the 1980s and 1990s," NBER Working Papers 8298, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Lahiri, Kajal & Song, Jae & Wixon, Bernard, 2008. "A model of Social Security Disability Insurance using matched SIPP/Administrative data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 145(1-2), pages 4-20, July.
  11. Jonathan Gruber, 2000. "Medicaid," NBER Working Papers 7829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    • Jonathan Gruber, 2003. "Medicaid," NBER Chapters, in: Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, pages 15-78 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Gina Livermore & David Stapleton & Henry Claypool, 2009. "Costs and Benefits of Eliminating the Medicare Waiting Period for SSDI Beneficiaries," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 6218, Mathematica Policy Research.

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