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Programme de recherche sur le rôle des gouvernements dans le financement des entreprises Initiatives gouvernementales en capital de risque : les leçons des expériences européennes

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  • Cécile Carpentier

    ()

  • Jean-Marc Suret

    ()

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    Abstract

    Most countries have set up structures and programs for new business creation and financing. We analyze strategies implemented in France, Germany and United Kingdom, where the proportion of government funds in venture capital financing is significantly smaller than in the Quebec, yet the rate of creation and growth of tech start-ups is comparable. In these countries, intervention is based on R&D, transfer, incubation and start-up, in high technology industries exclusively. Except in France, universities are pivotal to new business creation. Internal or subordinated divisions of ministries are created to manage and evaluate governmental programs, define priorities and avoid financing non-crucial industries. Often of limited duration, government programs must abide by rigorous performance and accreditation criteria. Tax incentives are generally not associated with these initiatives. La plupart des pays ont instauré des institutions et des mécanismes dédiés à la création de nouvelles entreprises et au financement de leur croissance. Nous analysons les stratégies mises en place par la France, l’Allemagne et le Royaume-Uni. Dans ces pays, la part de l’État dans le financement par capital de risque est significativement inférieure à celle du Québec sans que la performance en termes de création et de croissance d’entreprises technologiques ne semble inférieure. Ces pays ont privilégié une action ciblée, axée sur les stades de R&D, transfert, incubation et démarrage, clairement restreinte aux technologies. Les universités sont, à l’exception de la France, au centre de l’effort de création de nouveaux projets d’entreprises. Des structures internes ou directement subordonnées aux ministères sont mises en place pour gérer et évaluer les programmes, établir les priorités et éviter les dérapages vers des secteurs en demande de fonds mais non prioritaires. Les programmes, dont la durée de vie est souvent limitée, sont très largement soumis à des critères de performance et d’accréditation rigoureux. Les modes d’intervention autres que les déductions fiscales sont privilégiés.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2005s-12.

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    Date of creation: 01 Mar 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2005s-12

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    Keywords: small business; public policy; business creation; financing; start-ups; petite entreprise; politiques publiques; création d'entreprises; financement; Europe;

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