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Selective Penalization Of Polluters: An Inf-Convolution Approach

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  • Ngo Van Long

    ()

  • Antoine Soubeyran

Abstract

In this paper, we consider an asymmetric polluting oligopoly: firms have different production costs, and their pollution characteristics may also be different. We will demonstrate that, in this case, optimal tax rates per unit of emission are not the same for all firms. We call this property ``selective penalization'', or ``favoritism in penalties.'' Thus, the ``efficiency'' objective may be served only at the expense of ``fairness'. One of our main results is the Optimal Distortion Theorem.. We show that even in the case w here the rates of emission per unit of output are identical for all firms, the efficient tax structure requires that high cost firms pay a higher tax rate on emissions. Our result implies that the efficient tax structure favors the efficient firms, but the magnitude of the favors is a decreasing function of the marginal cost of public fund. Another characterization of optimal tax structure is our Pro-concentration Motive Theorem. Optimal taxes penalize the inefficient firms more, and thus increases the concentration of the industry, as measured by the Herfindahl index. In fact, we show that the variance of the distribution of the firms' tax-inclusive marginal costs after the imposition of efficient taxes exceeds the variance that would be obtained if there were no taxes. We call this the Magnification Effect: the variance of marginal costs is magnified by a factor which depends on the marginal cost of public fund. On modélise un oligopole hétérogène : les firmes ont des coûts différents et des paramètres de pollution différents. On montre que les taux de taxes optimales imposées sur les émissions ne sont pas les mêmes. On appelle cette propriété la pénalisation sélective. Il existe donc un conflit entre l'équité et l'efficacité. Le résultat principal de notre article est Le Théorème de la Distorsion Optimale. La structure des taxes optimales exige que les firmes aux coûts les plus élevés paient les taxes les plus élevées. Un autre résultat s'appelle le Théorème sur le motif pro-concentration.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2002s-40.

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Date of creation: 01 Apr 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2002s-40

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Keywords: Pollution; environmental regulation; oligopoly; Pollution; réglementations environnementales; oligopole;

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References

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  1. Ulph, Alistair, 1996. "Environmental Policy and International Trade when Governments and Producers Act Strategically," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 265-281, May.
  2. Browning, Edgar K, 1976. "The Marginal Cost of Public Funds," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(2), pages 283-98, April.
  3. Conrad Klaus, 1993. "Taxes and Subsidies for Pollution-Intensive Industries as Trade Policy," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 121-135, September.
  4. J. Neary, 2006. "International Trade and the Environment: Theoretical and Policy Linkages," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 33(1), pages 95-118, 01.
  5. Benchekroun, Hassan & van Long, Ngo, 1998. "Efficiency inducing taxation for polluting oligopolists," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 325-342, November.
  6. Gaudet, Gerard & Salant, Stephen W, 1991. "Uniqueness of Cournot Equilibrium: New Results from Old Methods," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 399-404, April.
  7. Buchanan, James M, 1969. "External Diseconomies, Corrective Taxes, and Market Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(1), pages 174-77, March.
  8. Van Long, N. & Soubeyran, A., 1997. "Cost Manipulation in an Asymmetric Oligopoly: The Taxation Problem," ASSET - Instituto De Economia Publica 173, ASSET (Association of Southern European Economic Theorists).
  9. Ngo Van Long & Antoine Soubeyran, 1999. "Cost Manipulation Games in Oligopoly, with Costs of Manipulating," CIRANO Working Papers 99s-13, CIRANO.
  10. Van Long, N. & Soubeyran, A., 1996. "Cost Heterogeneity, Industry Concentration and Startegic Trade Policies," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 96a39, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
  11. Nathalie de Marcellis-Warin & Erwann Michel-Kerjan, 2001. "The Public-Private Sector Risk-Sharing in the French Insurance "Cat. Nat. System"," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-60, CIRANO.
  12. Collie, David, 1993. "Strategic trade policy under asymmetric oligopoly," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 275-280, May.
  13. Ngo Van Long & Antoine Soubeyran, 1999. "Existence and Uniqueness of Cournot Equilibrium: A Contraction Mapping Approach," CIRANO Working Papers 99s-22, CIRANO.
  14. Greg Shaffer & Stephen W. Salant, 1999. "Unequal Treatment of Identical Agents in Cournot Equilibrium," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 585-604, June.
  15. Hansson, Ingemar & Stuart, Charles, 1985. "Tax revenue and the marginal cost of public funds in Sweden," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 331-353, August.
  16. Hoel, Michael, 1993. "Intertemporal properties of an international carbon tax," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 51-70, March.
  17. Long, N.V. & Soubeyran, A., 1998. "Cost Manipulation in Oligopoly: A Duality Approach," G.R.E.Q.A.M. 98a22, Universite Aix-Marseille III.
  18. Rauscher, Michael, 1997. "International Trade, Factor Movements, and the Environment," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198290506.
  19. Ngo Van Long & Antoine Soubeyran, 2001. "Emission Taxes and Standards for an Asymmetric Oligopoly," CIRANO Working Papers 2001s-07, CIRANO.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Rupayan Pal, 2009. "Delegation and Emission Tax in a Differentiated Oligopoly," Working Papers id:2263, eSocialSciences.
  2. Hassan Benchekroun & Ngo Van Long, 2007. "A Class Of Performance-Based Subsidy Rules," Departmental Working Papers 2007-05, McGill University, Department of Economics.
  3. Antelo, Manel & Loureiro, Maria L., 2009. "Asymmetric information, signaling and environmental taxes in oligopoly," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(5), pages 1430-1440, March.
  4. Lapan, Harvey E. & Hennessy, David A., 2008. "Statistical moments analysis of production and welfare in multi-product Cournot oligopoly," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 598-606, March.
  5. Naoto Jinji, 2013. "Comparative Statics for Oligopoly: A Generalized Result," Discussion papers e-12-011, Graduate School of Economics Project Center, Kyoto University.
  6. Meredith Fowlie, 2008. "Incomplete Environmental Regulation, Imperfect Competition, and Emissions Leakage," NBER Working Papers 14421, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Rupayan Pal, 2009. "Delegation and emission tax in a differentiated oligopoly," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2009-007, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  8. Requate, Till, 2005. "Environmental Policy under Imperfect Competition : A Survey," Economics Working Papers 2005,12, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  9. Rupayan Pal & Bibhas Saha, 2010. "Does Partial Privatization Improve the Environment?," Working Papers id:3122, eSocialSciences.
  10. AMIR, Rabah & NANNERUP, Niels, 2004. "Asymmetric regulation of identical polluters in oligopoly models," CORE Discussion Papers 2004046, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  11. Rupayan Pal & Bibhas Saha, 2010. "Does partial privatization improve the environment," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2010-018, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  12. George E. Halkos & George J. Papageorgiou, 2012. "Pollution Control Policy: A Dynamic Taxation Scheme," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 6(1), pages 14-37, March.

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