Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Vertical R&D Spillovers, Cooperation, Market Structure, and Innovation

Contents:

Author Info

  • Gamal Atallah

Abstract

This paper studies vertical R&D spillovers between upstream and downstream firms. The model incorporates two vertically related industries, with horizontal spillovers within each industry and vertical spillovers between the two industries. Four types of R&D cooperation are studied: no cooperation, horizontal cooperation, vertical cooperation, and simultaneous horizontal and vertical cooperation. Vertical spillovers always increase R&D and welfare, while horizontal spillovers may increase or decrease them. The comparison of cooperative settings in terms of R&D shows that no setting uniformly dominates the others. Which type of cooperation yields more R&D depends on horizontal and vertical spillovers, and market structure. The ranking of cooperative structures hinges on the signs and magnitudes of three competitive externalities (vertical, horizontal, and diagonal) which capture the effect of the R&D of a firm on the profits of other firms. One of the basic results of the strategic investment literature is that cooperation between competitors increases (decreases) R&D when horizontal spillovers are high (low); the model shows that this result does not necessarily hold when vertical spillovers and vertical cooperation are taken into account. The paper proposes a theory of innovation and market structure, showing that the relation between innovation and competition depends on horizontal spillovers, vertical spillovers, and cooperative settings. The private incentives for R&D cooperation are addressed. It is found that buyers and sellers have divergent interests regarding the choice of cooperative settings and that spillovers increase the likelihood of the emergence of cooperation in a decentralized equilibrium. Cet article étudie les externalités de recherche verticales entre des firmes en amont et des firmes en aval. Il y a deux industries verticalement reliées, avec des externalités horizontales au sein de chaque industrie et des externalités verticales entre les deux industries. Quatre structures de coopération en R&D sont considérées: pas de coopération, coopération horizontale, coopération verticale, et coopération horizontale et verticale simultanément. Les externalités verticales augmentent la R&D et le bien-être, alors que les externalités horizontales peuvent les augmenter ou les diminuer. La comparaison des structures de coopération en terme de R&D révèle qu'aucune structure ne domine uniformément les autres. Le classement des structures de coopération dépend des externalités horizontales et verticales, et de la concurrence. Le classement dépend des signes et magnitudes de trois externalités concurrentielles (verticale, horizontale et diagonale) qui captent l'effet de la R&D d'une firme sur les profits des autres firmes. Un des résultats de base de la littérature sur l'investissement stratégique est que la coopération entre concurrents augmente (diminue) la R&D lorsque les externalités horizontales sont élevées (faibles); le modèle montre que ce résultat n'est pas toujours vérifié en présence des externalités verticales et/ou de la coopération verticale. Le papier propose une théorie reliant le degré d'innovation à la structure du marché: la relation entre la concurrence et l'innovation dépend des externalités horizontales, des externalités verticales et de la structure de coopération. Les incitations privées à la coopération en R&D sont examinées; on montre que les vendeurs et les acheteurs ont des préférences différentes quant au choix de structure de coopération et que les externalités augmentent la vraisemblance de l'émergence décentralisée de la coopération.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/pdf/publication/2000s-54.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2000s-54.

as in new window
Length:
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2000
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2000s-54

Contact details of provider:
Postal: 2020 rue University, 25e étage, Montréal, Quéc, H3A 2A5
Phone: (514) 985-4000
Fax: (514) 985-4039
Email:
Web page: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/
More information through EDIRC

Related research

Keywords: Vertical R&D spillovers; market structure; innovation; vertical R&D cooperation; R&D policy; Externalités de recherche verticales; structure de marché; innovation; coopération verticale en R&D; politique de R&D;

Other versions of this item:

Find related papers by JEL classification:

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Delbono, Flavio & Denicolo, Vincenzo, 1990. "R & D investment in a symmetric and homogeneous oligopol : Bertrand vs Cournot," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 297-313, June.
  2. Geroski, P A, 1992. "Vertical Relations between Firms and Industrial Policy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 102(410), pages 138-47, January.
  3. Suzumura, Kotaro, 1992. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in an Oligopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1307-20, December.
  4. Jorde, Thomas M & Teece, David J, 1990. "Innovation and Cooperation: Implications for Competition and Antitrust," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 75-96, Summer.
  5. VanderWerf, Pieter A., 1992. "Explaining downstream innovation by commodity suppliers with expected innovation benefit," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 315-333, August.
  6. Wolfgang Becker & Jurgen Peters, 1998. "R&D-Competition Between Vertical Corporate Networks: Market Structure and Strategic R&D-Spillovers," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(1), pages 51-72.
  7. Adam B. Jaffe, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits and Market Value," NBER Working Papers 1815, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Ron Jarmin, 1993. "Asymmetric Learning Spillovers," Working Papers 93-7, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  9. Pavitt, Keith, 1984. "Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 343-373, December.
  10. Bernstein, Jeffrey I & Nadiri, M Ishaq, 1988. "Interindustry R&D Spillovers, Rates of Return, and Production in High-Tech Industries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 429-34, May.
  11. Harhoff, Dietmar, 1991. "R&D incentives and spillovers in a two-industry model," ZEW Discussion Papers 91-06, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  12. Spence, Michael, 1984. "Cost Reduction, Competition, and Industry Performance," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(1), pages 101-21, January.
  13. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Cassiman, Bruno & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2001. "R&D cooperation and spillovers: Some empirical evidence," IESE Research Papers D/430, IESE Business School.
  15. Mansfield, Edwin, 1985. "How Rapidly Does New Industrial Technology Leak Out?," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(2), pages 217-23, December.
  16. Salant, S.W. & Shaffer, G., 1997. "Optimal Asymmetric Strategies in Research Joint Ventures," Papers 97-06, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
  17. Aghion, P. & Tirole, J., 1993. "On the Management of Innovation," Working papers 93-12, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  18. Bester, Helmut & Petrakis, Emmanuel, 1993. "The incentives for cost reduction in a differentiated industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 519-534.
  19. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1987. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial Research and Development," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 783-832.
  20. Kim B. Clark & W. Bruce Chew & Takahiro Fujimoto, 1987. "Product Development in the World Auto Industry," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 18(3), pages 729-782.
  21. Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna, 1996. "R&D Competition with Asymmetric Firms," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 43(3), pages 334-42, August.
  22. Leahy, Dermot & Neary, J Peter, 1997. "Public Policy towards R&D in Oligopolistic Industries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 642-62, September.
  23. Fudenberg, Drew & Tirole, Jean, 1984. "The Fat-Cat Effect, the Puppy-Dog Ploy, and the Lean and Hungry Look," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(2), pages 361-66, May.
  24. Chongwoo Choe, 1998. "Two Comments on the Industrial Organisation of Vertically Related Markets," Working Papers 1998.03, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
  25. Steurs, Geert, 1995. "Inter-industry R&D spillovers: What difference do they make?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 249-276.
  26. Ward, Michael R & Dranove, David, 1995. "The Vertical Chain of Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(1), pages 70-87, January.
  27. M. Ishaq Nadiri, 1993. "Innovations and Technological Spillovers," NBER Working Papers 4423, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  28. Teece, David J., 1992. "Competition, cooperation, and innovation : Organizational arrangements for regimes of rapid technological progress," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-25, June.
  29. Kamien, Morton I & Zang, Israel, 1993. "Competing Research Joint Ventures," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 2(1), pages 23-40, Spring.
  30. Goto, Akira & Suzuki, Kazuyuki, 1989. "R&D Capital, Rate of Return on R&D Investment and Spillover of R&D in Japanese Manufacturing Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(4), pages 555-64, November.
  31. Jeffrey I. Bernstein, 1988. "Costs of Production, Intra- and Interindustry R&D Spillovers: Canadian Evidence," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 21(2), pages 324-47, May.
  32. Ruff, Larry E., 1969. "Research and technological progress in a cournot economy," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 397-415, December.
  33. Dasgupta, Partha & Stiglitz, Joseph, 1980. "Industrial Structure and the Nature of Innovative Activity," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(358), pages 266-93, June.
  34. Rafael Moner-Colonques & Jose Jorge Sempere-Monerris, 2000. "Cooperation In R&D With Spillovers And Delegation Of Sales," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(5), pages 401-420.
  35. Kesteloot, Katrien & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 1995. "Stable R&D Cooperation with Spillovers," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(4), pages 651-72, Winter.
  36. d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988. "Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-37, December.
  37. Boivin, Caroline & Vencatachellum, Désiré, 1998. "Externalités et coopération en recherche et développement : une reconceptualisation," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 74(4), pages 633-649, décembre.
  38. Young, Allan Richard, 1991. "Vertical Structure and Nash Equilibrium: A Note," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(6), pages 717-22, December.
  39. Hagedoorn, John & Link, Albert N. & Vonortas, Nicholas S., 2000. "Research partnerships1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 567-586, April.
  40. Poyago-Theotoky, Joanna, 1995. "Equilibrium and Optimal Size of a Research Joint Venture in an Oligopoly with Spillovers," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(2), pages 209-26, June.
  41. Richard C. Levin & Alvin K. Klevorick & Richard R. Nelson & Sidney G. Winter, 1988. "Appropriating the Returns from Industrial R&D," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 862, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  42. Irmen, Andreas, 1997. "Mark-up pricing and bilateral monopoly," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 54(2), pages 179-184, February.
  43. Wolff, Edward N. & Ishaq Nadiri, M., 1993. "Spillover effects, linkage structure, and research and development," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 315-331, December.
  44. Greenhut, M L & Ohta, H, 1979. "Vertical Integration of Successive Oligopolists," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 137-41, March.
  45. Kamien, Morton I & Muller, Eitan & Zang, Israel, 1992. "Research Joint Ventures and R&D Cartels," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(5), pages 1293-306, December.
  46. Aghion, Philippe & Tirole, Jean, 1994. "The Management of Innovation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(4), pages 1185-1209, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. G. Rossini, 2005. "Pitfalls in private and social incentives of vertical crossborder outsourcing," Working Papers 536, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  2. Khazabi, Massoud & Quyen, Nguyen, 2008. "Competition and innovation with horizontal R&D spillovers," MPRA Paper 39453, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Belderbos, René & Carree, Martin & Lokshin, Boris, 2006. "Complementarity in R&D cooperation strategies," Research Memorandum 013, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
  4. Kesavayuth, Dusanee & Zikos, Vasileios, 2012. "Upstream and downstream horizontal R&D networks," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 742-750.
  5. Constantine Manasakis & Emmanuel Petrakis, 2005. "Downstream Research Joint Venture with Upstream Market Power," Working Papers 0513, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  6. Keilbach, Max & Bönte, Werner, 2004. "Concubinage or Marriage? Informal and Formal Cooperations for Innovation," ZEW Discussion Papers 04-11, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  7. Constantine Manasakis & Dusanee Kesavayuth & Vasileios Zikos, 2012. "Upstream R&D networks," Working Papers 1201, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  8. Belderbos, Rene & Carree, Martin & Lokshin, Boris, 2004. "Cooperative R&D and firm performance," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(10), pages 1477-1492, December.
  9. Werner Bönte & Lars Wiethaus, 2005. "Knowledge Transfer in Buyer-Supplier Relationships – When It (Not) Occurs," RWI Discussion Papers 0034, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
  10. Uwe Cantner & Andreas Meder, 2006. "Die Wirkung von Forschungskooperationen auf den Unternehmenserfolg - eine Fallstudie zum Landkreis Saalfeld Rudolstadt," Jenaer Schriften zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft 24/2006, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
  11. Khazabi, Massoud & Quyen, Nguyen, 2011. "R&D Spillovers, Innovation, and Entry," MPRA Paper 39460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  12. Gallié, Emilie-Pauline & Roux, Pascale, 2008. "Forms and Determinants of R&D Collaborations: New Evidence on French Data," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/5009, Paris Dauphine University.
  13. Bönte, Werner & Dienes, Christian, 2012. "Energy and Material Efficiency Innovations: The Relevance of Innovation Strategies," Schumpeter Discussion Papers sdp12001, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
  14. Gallié, Emilie-Pauline & Roux, Pascale, 2010. "Forms and Determinants of R&D Collaborations: Evidence Based on French Data," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/6963, Paris Dauphine University.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2000s-54. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Webmaster).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.