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Occupational Gender Composition and Wages in Canada: 1987-1988

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  • Michael Baker
  • Nicole M. Fortin

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Abstract

In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. Our analysis reveals sensitivity of the estimated penalty to female work to both specification and estimation strategy. Our preferred estimates indicate that the wage penalties for women in female jobs in Canada are generally smaller than penalties in the United States. Of particular note, while there is some heterogeneity across worker groups, on average the link between female wages and gender composition is small and generally not statistically significant. Dans cet article, nous dressons un portrait complet, de la fin des années 1980, de la ségrégation professionnelle fondée sur le sexe au Canada et de ses répercussions sur les salaires. Notre analyse révèle que les estimés de la pénalité salariale dans les emplois féminins sont influencés par le choix de méthodes d'estimations et des spécifications fonctionnelles. Nos estimés les plus robustes indiquent que pour les femmes au Canada la pénalité reliée aux emplois féminins est généralement plus faible que celle trouvée aux États-Unis. Bien que nous trouvons des résultats hétérogènes en considérant différents groupes de travailleurs, en moyenne le lien entre le taux de féminité des professions et les salaires des femmes est faible et généralement pas statistiquement significatif.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CIRANO in its series CIRANO Working Papers with number 2000s-48.

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Date of creation: 01 Oct 2000
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Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:2000s-48

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Keywords: Pay equity; comparable worth; gender composition; occupational gender segregation; wage determination; two-step estimator; Équité salariale; salaire égal pour travail de valeur comparable; taux de féminité des professions; segmentation des professions; estimateur à deux étapes;

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References

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  1. Nidardo, J. & Fortin, N. & Lemieux, T., 1994. "Labor Market Institutions and the Distribution of Wages, 1973-1992: A Semiparametric Approach," Papers 93-94-15, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
  2. Johnson, George & Solon, Gary, 1986. "Estimates of the Direct Effects of Comparable Worth Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1117-25, December.
  3. Lemieux, T., 1993. "Unions and Wages Inequality in Canada and the United States," Cahiers de recherche 9302, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  4. Denise J. Doiron & W. Craig Riddell, 1994. "The Impact of Unionization on Male-Female Earnings Differences in Canada," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(2), pages 504-534.
  5. David Card & Thomas Lemieux & W. Craig Riddell, 2004. "Unions and Wage Inequality," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 25(4), pages 519-562, October.
  6. Enrico Moretti, 2002. "Estimating the Social Return to Higher Education: Evidence From Longitudinal and Repeated Cross-Sectional Data," NBER Working Papers 9108, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Kevin T. Reilly & Tony Wirjanto, 1997. "Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level," Working Papers 98001, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics, revised Sep 1997.
  8. Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 1999. "Asymptotic Properties of Weighted M-Estimators for Variable Probability Samples," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(6), pages 1385-1406, November.
  9. William J. Carrington & Kenneth R. Troske, 1995. "Gender Segregation in Small Firms," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(3), pages 503-533.
  10. Daron Acemoglu & Joshua Angrist, 1999. "How Large are the Social Returns to Education? Evidence from Compulsory Schooling Laws," Working papers 99-30, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  11. Moulton, Brent R., 1986. "Random group effects and the precision of regression estimates," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 385-397, August.
  12. W. Craig Riddell, 1993. "Unionization in Canada and the United States: A Tale of Two Countries," NBER Chapters, in: Small Differences That Matter: Labor Markets and Income Maintenance in Canada and the United States, pages 109-148 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Macpherson, David A & Hirsch, Barry T, 1995. "Wages and Gender Composition: Why Do Women's Jobs Pay Less?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 13(3), pages 426-71, July.
  14. Michael P. Kidd & Michael Shannon, 1994. "An Update and Extension of the Canadian Evidence on Gender Wage Differentials," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 27(4), pages 918-38, November.
  15. Kenneth R Troske & William J Carrington, 1992. "Gender Segregation Small Firms," Working Papers 92-13, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau, revised May 1993.
  16. Michael Baker & Nicole Fortin, 2000. "Comparable Worth Comes to the Private Sector: The Case of Ontario," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0266, Econometric Society.
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