BACI: International Trade Database at the Product-Level. The 1994-2007 Version
AbstractThis paper documents the construction of BACI, our international trade database, which covers more than 200 countries and 5,000 products, between 1994 and 2007. New approaches have been developed to reconcile data reported by almost 150 countries to the United Nations Statistics Division, collated via COMTRADE. When both exporting and importing countries report to Comtrade, we have two different figures for the same flow, so it is useful to reconcile these into a single figure. To do this, firstly, as import values are reported CIF (cost, insurance and freight) while exports are reported FOB (free on board), transport and insurance rates have to be estimated and removed from import values. We regress the observed CIF/FOB ratios for a given flow on gravity variables and a product-specific world median unit value. In a second step we evaluate the reliability of countries reporting. We decompose the absolute value of the ratios of mirror flows using a (weighted) variance analysis. These measures of the reliability of reported data are used as weights in the reconciliation of each bilateral trade flow which is reported twice. Taking advantage of this bilateral information on each flow, we end up with a large coverage of countries and more reliable data, especially in terms of unit-values. BACI is freely available online to users of COMTRADE database, in different product classifications.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by CEPII research center in its series Working Papers with number 2010-23.
Date of creation: Oct 2010
Date of revision:
International trade; Trade costs; CIF/FOB; Trade data reconciliation;
Other versions of this item:
- Gaulier, Guillaume & Zignago, Soledad, 2004. "Notes on BACI (analytical database of international trade). 1989-2002 version," MPRA Paper 32401, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
- F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
- F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
- C80 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - General
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- repec:att:wimass:9713 is not listed on IDEAS
- Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2002. "La discrimination commerciale revelee comme mesure desagregee de l'acces aux marches," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 89-90, pages 262-280.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 2002.
"On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(2), pages 281-316, April.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 1996. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," International Trade 9608001, EconWPA, revised 13 Jun 1997.
- Simon J. Evenett & Wolfgang Keller, 1998. "On Theories Explaining the Success of the Gravity Equation," NBER Working Papers 6529, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Cheptea, A. & Fontagné, L. & Zignago, S., 2012.
"European Export Performance,"
393, Banque de France.
- David Hummels & Alexandre Skiba, 2004.
"Shipping the Good Apples Out? An Empirical Confirmation of the Alchian-Allen Conjecture,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(6), pages 1384-1402, December.
- David Hummels & Alexandre Skiba, 2002. "Shipping the Good Apples Out? An Empirical Confirmation of the Alchian-Allen Conjecture," NBER Working Papers 9023, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lionel Fontagné & Michael Freudenberg & Guillaume Gaulier, 2006. "A Systematic Decomposition of World Trade into Horizontal and Vertical IIT," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 142(3), pages 459-475, October.
- Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2007.
"The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements,"
2007-04, CEPII research center.
- Disdier, Anne-Celia & Fontagne, Lionel & Mimouni, Mondher, 2007. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements," Working Papers 18869, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Robert E. Lipsey & Haiyan Deng & Alyson C. Ma & Hengyong Mo, 2005. "World Trade Flows: 1962-2000," NBER Working Papers 11040, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Guillaume Gaulier & Françoise Lemoine & Deniz Ünal, 2006.
"China’s Emergence and the Reorganisation of Trade Flows in Asia,"
2006-05, CEPII research center.
- GAULIER, Guillaume & LEMOINE, Francoise & UNAL-KESENCI, Deniz, 2007. "China's emergence and the reorganisation of trade flows in Asia," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 209-243.
- Ecochard, Pierre & Fontagné, Lionel & Gaulier, Guillaume & Zignago, Soledad, 2005. "Intra-industry trade and regional integration," MPRA Paper 44182, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Lionel Fontagné & David Laborde & Cristina Mitaritonna, 2008. "An Impact Study of the EU-ACP Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in the Six ACP Regions," Working Papers 2008-04, CEPII research center.
- Guillaume Gaulier & Isabelle Méjean, 2006. "Import Prices, Variety and the Extensive Margin of Trade," Working Papers 2006-17, CEPII research center.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Robert E. Lipsey & Harry P. Bowen, 1997. "World Trade Flows, 1970-1992, with Production and Tariff Data," NBER Working Papers 5910, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lionel Fontagné & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2008.
"Specialization across varieties and North-South competition,"
CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 23, pages 51-91, 01.
- Lionel Fontagné & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2007. "Specialisation across Varieties within Products and North-South Competition," Working Papers 2007-06, CEPII research center.
- Jean Imbs & Isabelle Mˆmjean, 2008.
242008, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
- Jean Imbs & Isabelle Méjean, 2009. "Elasticity optimism," Working Papers hal-00362403, HAL.
- Jean Imbs & Isabelle Mejean, 2008. "Elasticity Optimism," EIEF Working Papers Series 0805, Einaudi Institute for Economic and Finance (EIEF), revised Mar 2008.
- Imbs, Jean & Mejean, Isabelle, 2009. "Elasticity Optimism," CEPR Discussion Papers 7177, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- International Monetary Fund, 2009. "Elasticity Optimism," IMF Working Papers 09/279, International Monetary Fund.
- Laszlo Matyas, 1997. "Proper Econometric Specification of the Gravity Model," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 363-368, 05.
- Anne-Célia Disdier & Keith Head, 2008.
"The Puzzling Persistence of the Distance Effect on Bilateral Trade,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 37-48, February.
- Anne-Célia Disdier & Keith Head, 2004. "The Puzzling Persistence of the Distance Effect on Bilateral Trade," Development Working Papers 186, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
- Arie ten Cate, 2007. "Modelling the reporting discrepancies in bilateral data," CPB Memorandum 179, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
- Matthews, Alan & Gallezot, Jacques, 2006.
"The role of EBA in the political economy of CAP reform,"
18864, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
- Alan Matthews & Jacques Gallezot, 2006. "The role of EBA in the political economy of CAP reform," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp133, IIIS.
- Thierry Mayer & Soledad Zignago, 2011.
"Notes on CEPII’s distances measures: The GeoDist database,"
2011-25, CEPII research center.
- Antoine Bou�t & Yvan Decreux & Lionel Fontagné & Sébastien Jean & David Laborde, 2008. "Assessing Applied Protection across the World," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(5), pages 850-863, November.
- Fontagne, Lionel & Laborde, David & Mitaritonna, Cristina, 2008. "An Impact Study of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) in the Six ACP Regions," 2008 International Congress, August 26-29, 2008, Ghent, Belgium 44194, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Johnson, Robert C., 2012. "Trade and prices with heterogeneous firms," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 43-56.
- Angela Cheptea & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2005.
"World Trade Competitiveness: A Disaggregated View by Shift-Share Analysis,"
2005-23, CEPII research center.
- Angela Cheptea & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2004. "The World Market: Market Shares and Export Performances," La Lettre du CEPII, CEPII research center, issue 231.
- Nanno Mulder & Rodrigo Paiilacar & Soledad Zignago, 2009. "Market Positioning of Varieties in World Trade: is Latin America Losing Out on Asia?," Working Papers 2009-09, CEPII research center.
- Robert C. Feenstra & John Romalis & Peter K. Schott, 2002. "U.S. Imports, Exports, and Tariff Data, 1989-2001," NBER Working Papers 9387, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Anne-Célia Disdier & Silvio Tai & Lionel Fontagné & Thierry Mayer, 2010.
"Bilateral trade of cultural goods,"
Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv),
Springer, vol. 145(4), pages 575-595, January.
- David Hummels & Volodymyr Lugovskyy, 2006. "Are Matched Partner Trade Statistics a Usable Measure of Transportation Costs?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 69-86, 02.
This item has more than 25 citations. To prevent cluttering this page, these citations are listed on a separate page. reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.Access and download statistics
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.