Convergence of health care spending and health outcomes in the EUropean Union, 1960-95
AbstractConvergence in health expenditure in the countries of the European Union (EU) has been demonstrated to be occurring in previous studies. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the reasons for this finding and to present new evidence confirming convergence in health outcomes, as represented by life expectancy and infant mortality rates. The statistical methods used, s and b-convergence analysis, are well established in macro-economic growth analyses and based on the neo-classical growth model which predicts convergence in income for homogenous countries such as those forming the EU. The analyses reveal a common trend in that Southern Mediterranean countries have generally exhibited upward convergence towards the mean in health expenditure, and convergence towards the EU mean in improving directions for health outcomes. In contrast, EU countries of the North, particularly those of Scandinavia, exhibit downward convergence towards the EU mean or below it in health expenditure, whilst their health outcome measures have generally been displaying a decreasing advantage over the EU mean over the periods of analysis. The results are briefly considered in relation to the factors that help to explain the results, including the question of whether a causal relationship between health expenditure and health outcomes exists, the nature and impact of health care reforms throughout the 1970s, 80s and 90s in countries contributing most to the observed convergence, and the predictions of the neoclassical growth model which underpin the results.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Centre for Health Economics, University of York in its series Working Papers with number 183chedp.
Length: 27 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2000
Date of revision:
convergence; divergence; health expenditure; health outcomes; causal relationship;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jeffrey Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995.
"Economic Reform and the Progress of Global Integration,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1733, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
- Streissler, Erich, 1979. "Growth Models as Diffusion Processes," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(1/2), pages 251-69.
- Quah, Danny, 1993.
" Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis,"
Scandinavian Journal of Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-43, December.
- Quah, Danny, 1993. "Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," CEPR Discussion Papers 820, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- John Nixon, . "Convergence Analysis of Health Care Expenditure in the EU Countries Using Two Approaches," Discussion Papers 99/3, Department of Economics, University of York.
- Bernard, A.B. & Durlauf, S.N., 1994.
"Interpreting Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis,"
9401r, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Boyle, G E & McCarthy, T G, 1997.
"A Simple Measure of Beta-Convergence,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 59(2), pages 257-64, May.
- Gerry Boyle; & Thomas McCarthy, 1995. "A Simple Measure of Beta-Convergence," Economics, Finance and Accounting Department Working Paper Series n560495, Department of Economics, Finance and Accounting, National University of Ireland - Maynooth.
- Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991.
"Convergence across States and Regions,"
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity,
Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
- Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996.
"Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence,"
European Economic Review,
Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
- Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1994. "Regional Cohesion: Evidence and Theories of Regional Growth and Convergence," CEPR Discussion Papers 1075, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1994. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," Economics Working Papers 104, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Theo Hitiris, 1997. "Health care expenditure and integration in the countries of the European Union," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 1-6.
- Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992.
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 223-51, April.
- Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991. "Convergence Across States and Regions," Papers 629, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Barro, Robert J. & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Scholarly Articles 3451299, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991. "Convergence," Papers 645, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Pierre-Yves Crémieux & Pierre Ouellette & Caroline Pilon, 1999. "Health care spending as determinants of health outcomes," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(7), pages 627-639.
- Sala-i-Martin, X., 1994. "Regional Cohesion: Evidence and the Theories of Regional Growth and Convergence," Papers 716, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Andrea M. Leiter & Engelbert Theurl, 2009.
"The Convergence of Health Care Financing Structures: Empirical Evidence from OECD-Countries,"
2009-20, Faculty of Economics and Statistics, University of Innsbruck.
- Andrea Leiter & Engelbert Theurl, 2012. "The convergence of health care financing structures: empirical evidence from OECD-countries," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 7-18, February.
- Andrea Leiter & Engelbert Theurl, 2009. "The Convergence of Health Care Financing Structures: Empirical Evidence from OECD-Countries," NRN working papers 2009-12, The Austrian Center for Labor Economics and the Analysis of the Welfare State, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
- Lau, Marco Chi Keung & Fung, Ka Wai Terence, 2013. "Convergence in Health Care Expenditure of 14 EU Countries: New Evidence from Non-linear Panel Unit Root Test," MPRA Paper 52871, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Wen-Yi Chen, 2013. "Does healthcare financing converge? Evidence from eight OECD countries," International Journal of Health Care Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 279-300, December.
- Reibling, Nadine, 2013. "The international performance of healthcare systems in population health: Capabilities of pooled cross-sectional time series methods," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 112(1), pages 122-132.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Frances Sharp).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.