Functional form issues in the regression analysis of financial leverage ratios
AbstractLinear models are typically used in the regression analysis of capital structure choices. However, given the proportional and bounded nature of leverage ratios, models such as the tobit, the fractional regression model and its two-part variant are a better alternative. In this paper, we discuss the main econometric assumptions and features of those models, provide a theoretical foundation for their use in the regression analysis of leverage ratios and review some statistical tests suitable to assess their specification. Using a dataset previously considered in the literature, we carry out a comprehensive comparison of the alternative models, finding that in this framework the most relevant functional form issue is the choice between a single model for all capital structure decisions and a two-part model that explains separately the decisions to issue debt and, conditional on the first decision, on the amount of debt to issue.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal) in its series CEFAGE-UE Working Papers with number 2011_28.
Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: 2011
Date of revision:
Capital structure; Zero leverage; Fractional regression model; Tobit; Twopart model.;
Other versions of this item:
- Joaquim Ramalho & J. Silva, 2013. "Functional form issues in the regression analysis of financial leverage ratios," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 799-831, April.
- G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
- C25 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Leung, Siu Fai & Yu, Shihti, 1996.
"On the choice between sample selection and two-part models,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 72(1-2), pages 197-229.
- Leung, S.F. & Yu, S., 1992. "On the Choice Between Sample Selection and Two-Part Models," RCER Working Papers 337, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
- Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1995.
" What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1421-60, December.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1994. "What Do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," NBER Working Papers 4875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Esmeralda A. Ramalho, & Joaquim J.S. Ramalho & Pedro D. Henriques, 2010.
"Fractional regression models for second stage DEA efficiency analyses,"
CEFAGE-UE Working Papers
2010_01, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).
- Esmeralda Ramalho & Joaquim Ramalho & Pedro Henriques, 2010. "Fractional regression models for second stage DEA efficiency analyses," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 239-255, December.
- Esmeralda A. Ramalho & Joaquim J.S. Ramalho & José M.R. Murteira, 2009.
"Alternative estimating and testing empirical strategies for fractional regression models,"
CEFAGE-UE Working Papers
2009_08, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).
- Esmeralda A. Ramalho & Joaquim J.S. Ramalho & José M.R. Murteira, 2011. "Alternative Estimating And Testing Empirical Strategies For Fractional Regression Models," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(1), pages 19-68, 02.
- Johnson, Shane A., 1997. "An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Corporate Debt Ownership Structure," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(01), pages 47-69, March.
- Cook, Douglas O. & Kieschnick, Robert & McCullough, B.D., 2008. "Regression analysis of proportions in finance with self selection," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(5), pages 860-867, December.
- Ferreira, Daniel & Ferreira, Miguel A. & Raposo, Clara C., 2008.
"Board Structure and Price Informativeness,"
CEI Working Paper Series
2008-4, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Paul A. Gompers & Andrew Metrick, 1998.
"Institutional Investors and Equity Prices,"
NBER Working Papers
6723, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul A. Gompers & Andrew Metrick, . "Institutional Investors and Equity Prices," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 20-99, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Cassar, Gavin, 2004. "The financing of business start-ups," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 261-283, March.
- Bassam Fattouh & Laurence Harris & Pasquale Scaramozzino, 2008. "Non-linearity in the determinants of capital structure: evidence from UK firms," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 417-438, June.
- Michael L. Lemmon & Michael R. Roberts & Jaime F. Zender, 2008. "Back to the Beginning: Persistence and the Cross-Section of Corporate Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1575-1608, 08.
- John, Kose & Knyazeva, Anzhela & Knyazeva, Diana, 2011. "Does geography matter? Firm location and corporate payout policy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 533-551, September.
- Joaquim J.S. Ramalho & Jacinto Vidigal da Silva, 2006.
"A two-part fractional regression model for the financial leverage decisions of micro, small, medium and large firms,"
Economics Working Papers
9_2006, University of Évora, Department of Economics (Portugal).
- Joaquim J.S. Ramalho & Jacinto Vidigal da Silva, 2009. "A two-part fractional regression model for the financial leverage decisions of micro, small, medium and large firms," Quantitative Finance, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 9(5), pages 621-636.
- Tim Opler & Lee Pinkowitz & Rene Stulz & Rohan Williamson, 1997.
"The Determinants and Implications of Corporate Cash Holdings,"
NBER Working Papers
6234, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Opler, Tim & Pinkowitz, Lee & Stulz, Rene & Williamson, Rohan, 1999. "The determinants and implications of corporate cash holdings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 3-46, April.
- J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006.
"The Log of Gravity,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
- Ilya A. Strebulaev & Baozhong Yang, 2012. "The Mystery of Zero-Leverage Firms," NBER Working Papers 17946, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2002.
"Market Timing and Capital Structure,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 1-32, 02.
- Leslie E. Papke & Jeffrey M. Wooldridge, 1993.
"Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(k) Plan Participation Rates,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0147, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Papke, Leslie E & Wooldridge, Jeffrey M, 1996. "Econometric Methods for Fractional Response Variables with an Application to 401(K) Plan Participation Rates," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 619-32, Nov.-Dec..
- McDonald, John F & Moffitt, Robert A, 1980. "The Uses of Tobit Analysis," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 62(2), pages 318-21, May.
- Jensen, Gerald R. & Solberg, Donald P. & Zorn, Thomas S., 1992. "Simultaneous Determination of Insider Ownership, Debt, and Dividend Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(02), pages 247-263, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Angela Pacheco).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.