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Manufacturers and Retailers in the Global Economy

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  • Horst Raff
  • Nicolas Schmitt

Abstract

We develop a general-equilibrium model to capture key features of the retailing and of the manufacturing industry in order to understand how these two industries interact and how labor is allocated between them. We show that the observed shift in employment from manufacturing to retailing, the rise in retailer product assortment and the emergence of slotting allowances in many retail markets are consistent with the global integration of product markets, while higher retail market concentration is best explained by technological change in retailing. We also identify a novel benefit from market integration consisting of efficiency gains in the vertical distribution chain.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2011/wp-cesifo-2011-06/cesifo1_wp3508.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 3508.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_3508

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Related research

Keywords: international trade; product variety; retailing; slotting allowance; multi-product firms;

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References

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  1. Emek Basker, 2012. "Raising the Barcode Scanner: Technology and Productivity in the Retail Sector," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 1-27, July.
  2. Martin Richardson, 2004. "Trade Policy and Access to Retail Distribution," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 676-688, 09.
  3. Raff, Horst & Schmitt, Nicolas, 2005. "Endogenous vertical restraints in international trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1877-1889, October.
  4. Carsten Eckel, 2009. "International Trade and Retailing," CESifo Working Paper Series 2597, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2008. "Buyer Power in International Markets," Kiel Working Papers 1431, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  6. Emek Basker, 2007. "The Causes and Consequences of Wal-Mart's Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 21(3), pages 177-198, Summer.
  7. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2012. "Imports and the structure of retail markets," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1431-1455, November.
  8. Sullivan, Mary W, 1997. "Slotting Allowances and the Market for New Products," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(2), pages 461-93, October.
  9. Antras, Pol & Costinot, Arnaud, 2011. "Intermediated Trade," Scholarly Articles 4784024, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  10. Thomas J. Holmes, 1999. "Bar codes lead to frequent deliveries and superstores," Staff Report 261, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  11. Raff, Horst & Schmitt, Nicolas, 2004. "Exclusive Dealing and Common Agency in International Markets," Economics Working Papers 2004,09, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
  12. Emek Basker & Pham Hoang Van, 2007. "Wal-Mart as Catalyst to U.S.-China Trade," Working Papers 0710, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
  13. Greg Shaffer, 1991. "Slotting Allowances and Resale Price Maintenance: A Comparison of Facilitating Practices," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(1), pages 120-135, Spring.
  14. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-59, December.
  15. Robert Feenstra & Hong Ma, 2007. "Optimal Choice of Product Scope for Multiproduct Firms under Monopolistic Competition," NBER Working Papers 13703, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. Horst Raff & Nicolas Schmitt, 2012. "Imports and the structure of retail markets," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 45(4), pages 1431-1455, November.
  2. Angela Cheptea & Charlotte Emlinger & Karine Latouche, 2013. "Multinational retailers and home country exports," Working Papers 188885, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France.

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