State-Owned Enterprises, Shirking and Trade Liberalization
AbstractWe explore the implications of trade liberalization in economies with State Owned enterprises (SOEs) and shirking. SOEs are modelled as controlled by the members of the enterprise who determine output and effort levels, while facing output prices and wage rates set by government. Enterprise members must collectively meet a budget constraint that the value of sales equals the enterprise wage bill plus an exogenous enterprise commitment to the state budget. Labour can shirk either through low on the job effort (leisure), or through moonlighting to second jobs in the private sector. Three alternative formulations of equilibria in SOE economies are explored, and in these trade liberalization can produce effects opposite from conventional competitive models. In particular, the output of competing SOEs increases rather than falls, and negative effects on imports can also occur. These models when calibrated to 1995 data for Vietnam also suggest quantitatively much larger impacts from trade liberalization than is the case for comparable conventional competitive models. This is because departures from Pareto optimality in SOE economies can be large and trade liberalization acts to discipline shirking associated with these inefficiencies. The implication we draw from our analysis is that to evaluate policy initiatives, such as trade liberalization, in developing and transistion economies without explicitly recognizing the role that SOEs can play may be misleading. This is especially the case where SOEs account for a significant fraction of economic activity and shirking is involved.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 300.
Date of creation: 2000
Date of revision:
Shirking; state owned enterprises; trade liberalization;
Other versions of this item:
- Ghosh, Madanmohan & Whalley, John, 2008. "State owned enterprises, shirking and trade liberalization," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 1206-1215, November.
- Madanmohan Ghosh & John Whalley, 2000. "State-Owned Enterprises, Shirking and Trade Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 7696, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance
- H1 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Qian, Yingyi & Roland, Gerard, 1998.
"Federalism and the Soft Budget Constraint,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1143-62, December.
- Groves, Theodore, et al, 1994. "Autonomy and Incentives in Chinese State Enterprises," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(1), pages 183-209, February.
- Bertero, Elisabetta & Rondi, Laura, 2000. "Financial pressure and the behaviour of public enterprises under soft and hard budget constraints: evidence from Italian panel data," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 73-98, January.
- Alwyn Young, 1994. "The Tyranny of Numbers: Confronting the Statistical Realities of the East Asian Growth Experience," NBER Working Papers 4680, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David O’Connor, 1996. "Labour Market Aspects of State Enterprise Reform in Viet Nam," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 117, OECD Publishing.
- John Piggott & John Whalley, 1994.
"The Tax Unit and Household Production,"
NBER Working Papers
4820, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Boardman, Anthony E & Vining, Aidan R, 1989. "Ownership and Performance in Competitive Environments: A Comparison of the Performance of Private, Mixed, and State-Owned Enterprises," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 32(1), pages 1-33, April.
- James A. Schmitz, 1996. "The role played by public enterprises: how much does it differ across countries?," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Spr, pages 2-15.
- Bai, Chong-En & Li, David D. & Tao, Zhigang & Wang, Yijiang, 2000. "A Multitask Theory of State Enterprise Reform," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 716-738, December.
- Dong Xiao-yuan & Dow Gregory K., 1993. "Does Free Exit Reduce Shirking in Production Teams?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 472-484, June.
- Nguyen Chan & Madanmohan Ghosh & John Whalley, 1999. "Evaluating Tax Reform in Vietnam Using General Equilibrium Methods," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers 9906, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
- Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R, 1980. "The Relative Efficiency of Public and Private Firms in a Competitive Environment: The Case of Canadian Railroads," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(5), pages 958-76, October.
- Mori, Pier Angelo, 1991. "The role of employers' authority when jobs are partially enforceable," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 89-93, January.
- Henrik Barslund Fosse & Pascalis Raimondos-Møller, 2011.
"Reducing Tariffs according to WTO Accession Rules: The Case of Vietnam,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
3628, CESifo Group Munich.
- Henrik Barslund Fosse & Pascalis Raimondos‐Møller, 2012. "Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules: The Case of Vietnam," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(2), pages 331-341, 05.
- John Whalley & Shunming Zhang, 2006. "State-Owned Enterprise Behaviour Responses to Trade Reforms: Some Analytics and Numerical Simulation Results Using Chinese Data," NBER Working Papers 12780, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Claustre Bajona & Tianshu Chu, 2010.
"Reforming State Owned Enterprises in China: Effects of WTO Accession,"
Review of Economic Dynamics,
Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 13(4), pages 800-823, October.
- Claustra Bajona & Tianshu Chu, 2009. "Data Appendix to "Reforming the State-Owned Enterprises in China: Effects of WTO Accession"," Technical Appendices 06-12, Review of Economic Dynamics.
- Claustre Bajona & Tianshu Chu, 2011. "Code and data files for "Reforming SOE in china: the role of WTO accession"," Computer Codes 06-12, Review of Economic Dynamics.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Julio Saavedra).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.