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Slotting Allowances and Manufacturers’ Retail Sales Effort

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  • Oystein Foros
  • Hans Jarle Kind
  • Jan Yngve Sand

Abstract

A manufacturer’s incentives to undertake non-contractible investments depend on the profit margin on her sales to the retailer, and slotting allowances can facilitate such incentives by increasing unit wholesale prices. At first glance, it is tempting to conclude that slotting allowances should be particularly prevalent for product categories where the manufacturer’s scope for undertaking non-contractible sales effort is relatively large. At odds with this, The Federal Trade Commission, among others, reports that slotting allowances are more commonly used for product categories where the scope for non-contractible effort by themanufacturer is presumably relatively small. To scrutinize this puzzle we set up a simple model with one manufacturer and one retailer, where the manufacturer undertakes noncontractible demand-enhancing investments. The predictions from the model are consistent with the market observations. In particular, we show that even a retailer with completebargaining power may actually find it optimal to pay the manufacturer a franchising fee if demand is highly sensitive to the manufacturer’s non-contractible sales effort. For productcategories where the scope for non-contractible effort is relatively small, on the other hand, we are more likely to see slotting allowances.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2396.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2396

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Keywords: slotting allowances; non-contractible sales effort; bargaining power;

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References

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  1. Oystein Foros & Hans Jarle Kind, 2006. "Do Slotting Allowances Harm Retail Competition?," CESifo Working Paper Series 1800, CESifo Group Munich.
  2. Greg Shaffer, 1991. "Slotting Allowances and Resale Price Maintenance: A Comparison of Facilitating Practices," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 22(1), pages 120-135, Spring.
  3. Rajiv Lal, 1990. "Improving Channel Coordination Through Franchising," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 9(4), pages 299-318.
  4. Preyas S. Desai, 1997. "Advertising Fee in Business-Format Franchising," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 43(10), pages 1401-1419, October.
  5. Rao, Ram C & Srinivasan, Shubashri, 1995. "Why Are Royalty Rates Higher in Service-Type Franchises?," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(1), pages 7-31, Spring.
  6. Benjamin Klein & Joshua D. Wright, 2007. "The Economics of Slotting Contracts," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 50, pages 421-454.
  7. Richard J. Sexton & Mingxia Zhang, 1996. "A Model of Price Determination for Fresh Produce with Application to California Iceberg Lettuce," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(4), pages 924-934.
  8. Akshay R. Rao & Humaira Mahi, 2003. "The Price of Launching a New Product: Empirical Evidence on Factors Affecting the Relative Magnitude of Slotting Allowances," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 22(2), pages 246-268, January.
  9. Jack Hirshleifer, 1956. "On the Economics of Transfer Pricing," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29, pages 172.
  10. Preyas S. Desai, 2000. "Multiple Messages to Retain Retailers: Signaling New Product Demand," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 19(4), pages 381-389, August.
  11. Rubinstein, Ariel, 1979. "Equilibrium in supergames with the overtaking criterion," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 1-9, August.
  12. Shaffer Greg, 2005. "Slotting Allowances and Optimal Product Variety," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, June.
  13. Sullivan, Mary W, 1997. "Slotting Allowances and the Market for New Products," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(2), pages 461-93, October.
  14. Martin A. Lariviere & V. Padmanabhan, 1997. "Slotting Allowances and New Product Introductions," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 16(2), pages 112-128.
  15. Frank Mathewson & Ralph Winter, 1998. "The Law and Economics of Resale Price Maintenance," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 57-84, April.
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Cited by:
  1. Chris Doyle & Martijn A. Han, 2012. "Cartelization Through Buyer Groups," SFB 649 Discussion Papers SFB649DP2012-059, Sonderforschungsbereich 649, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.
  2. Ma, Peng & Wang, Haiyan & Shang, Jennifer, 2013. "Contract design for two-stage supply chain coordination: Integrating manufacturer-quality and retailer-marketing efforts," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 146(2), pages 745-755.
  3. Geng, Qin & Minutolo, Marcel C., 2010. "Failure fee under stochastic demand and information asymmetry," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 128(1), pages 269-279, November.
  4. Caprice, Stéphane & von Schlippenbach, Vanessa, 2013. "One-stop shopping as a cause of slotting fees: A rent-shifting mechanism," DICE Discussion Papers 97, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).

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