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Shifts in Organizational Form under a Dual Income Tax System

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  • Thor Olav Thoresen
  • Annette Alstadsæter

Abstract

Evidence of owners of small businesses engaging in tax motivated shifts in organizational form is scarce. The main reason is lack of micro data enabling us to track tax-payers’ movements across organizational modes. By exploiting new panel data that combine information from several public registers, we observe Norwegian owners of small businesses and their organizational forms in the period from 1993 to 2003. Under the hypothesis that certain characteristics of the Norwegian dual income tax system encourage shifts into widely held corporations, we observe outcomes for different organizational form choices. We show that owners of small firms that became widely held corporations have higher income growth than those that remained in self-employment or as a closely held corporation.

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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2273.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2273

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Keywords: income shifting; small businesses; organizational shifts; dual income tax;

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References

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  1. Pirttilä, Jukka & Selin, Håkan, 2006. "How Successful is the Dual Income Tax? Evidence from the Finnish Tax Reform of 1993," Working Paper Series, Uppsala University, Department of Economics 2006:26, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  2. Auerbach, Alan J., 2002. "Taxation and corporate financial policy," Handbook of Public Economics, Elsevier, in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 19, pages 1251-1292 Elsevier.
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  6. Roger H. Gordon & Joel Slemrod, 1998. "Are "Real" Responses to Taxes Simply Income Shifting Between Corporate and Personal Tax Bases?," NBER Working Papers 6576, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  8. Erik Fjaerli & Diderik Lund, 2001. "The choice between owner's wages and dividends under the dual income tax," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 14(2), pages 104-119, Autumn.
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  18. Annette Alstadsæter & Knut Reidar Wangen, 2008. "Corporations’ Choice of Tax Regime when Transition Costs are Small and Income Shifting Potential is Large," CESifo Working Paper Series 2392, CESifo Group Munich.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Annette Alstadsater & Knut Reidar Wangen, 2010. "Small Corporations' Income Shifting through Choice of Ownership Structure - a Norwegian Case," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 23(2), pages 73-87, Autumn.
  2. Annette Alstadsæter & Wojciech Kopczuk & Kjetil Telle, 2013. "Are Closely-Held Firms Tax Shelters?," NBER Working Papers 19609, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. John Creedy & Elin Halvorsen & Thor O. Thoresen, 2013. "Inequality Comparisons In A Multi-Period Framework: The Role Of Alternative Welfare Metrics," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 59(2), pages 235-249, 06.
  4. Joel Slemrod & Thor Olav Thoresen & Erlend Eide Bø, 2013. "Taxes on the Internet: Deterrence Effects of Public Disclosure," CESifo Working Paper Series 4107, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. Thor O. Thoresen & Trine E. Vattø, 2013. "Validation of structural labor supply model by the elasticity of taxable income," Discussion Papers 738, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  6. Annette Alstadsæter & Erik Fjaerli, 2009. "Neutral Taxation of Shareholder Income? Corporate Responses to an Announced Dividend Tax," CESifo Working Paper Series 2530, CESifo Group Munich.
  7. Shafik Hebous, 2011. "Money at the Docks of Tax Havens: A Guide," CESifo Working Paper Series 3587, CESifo Group Munich.
  8. Drange, Nina, 2012. "Crowding out Dad? The Effect of a Cash-for-Care Subsidy on Family time Allocation," UiS Working Papers in Economics and Finance 2012/3, University of Stavanger.
  9. Arnaldur Sölvi Kristjánsson & Peter J. Lambert, 2012. "Structural Progression Measures for Dual Income Tax Systems," Working Papers 269, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
  10. Annette Alstadsæter & Knut Reidar Wangen, 2008. "Corporations’ Choice of Tax Regime when Transition Costs are Small and Income Shifting Potential is Large," CESifo Working Paper Series 2392, CESifo Group Munich.
  11. Peter J. Lambert & Thor O. Thoresen, 2011. "The inequality effects of a dual income tax system," Discussion Papers 663, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  12. Thor O. Thoresen & Jørgen Aasness & Zhiyang Jia, 2008. "More realistic estimates of revenue changes from tax cuts," Discussion Papers 545, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  13. Erlend Bø & Peter Lambert & Thor Thoresen, 2012. "Horizontal inequity under a dual income tax system: principles and measurement," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 19(5), pages 625-640, October.

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