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Merger Policy and Tax Competition

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  • Andreas Haufler
  • Christian Schulte

Abstract

In many situations governments have sector-specific tax and regulation policies at their disposal to influence the market outcome after a national or an international merger has taken place. In this paper we study the implications for merger policy when countries non-cooperatively deploy production-based taxes. We find that whether national or international mergers are more likely to be enacted in the presence of nationally optimal tax policies depends crucially on the ownership structure of firms. When all firms are owned domestically in the pre-merger situation, non-cooperative tax policies are more efficient in the national merger case and smaller synergy effects are needed for this type of merger to be proposed and cleared. These results are reversed when there is a high degree of foreign firm ownership prior to the merger.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2157.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2157

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Keywords: merger regulation; tax competition;

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References

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  1. J. Peter Neary, 2007. "Cross-Border Mergers as Instruments of Comparative Advantage," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 74(4), pages 1229-1257.
  2. Dahlquist, Magnus & Pinkowitz, Lee & Stulz, René M. & Williamson, Rohan, 2002. "Corporate Governance and the Home Bias," SIFR Research Report Series 11, Institute for Financial Research.
  3. Henrik Horn & James Levinsohn, 1997. "Merger Policies and Trade Liberalization," NBER Working Papers 6077, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Harry Huizinga & Gaetan Nicodeme, 2003. "Foreign Ownership and Corporate Income Taxation: An Empirical Evaluation," Public Economics 0310005, EconWPA.
  5. Haufler, Andreas & Nielsen, Søren Bo, 2005. "Merger Policy to Promote Global Players? A Simple Model," Discussion Papers in Economics 666, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  6. Barros, Pedro P. & Cabral, Luis, 1994. "Merger policy in open economies," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 1041-1055, May.
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  8. Michael Keen and Sajal Lahiri, . "The Comparison Between Destination and Origin Principles Under Imperfect Competition," Economics Discussion Papers 424, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
  9. Richardson, Martin, 1999. "Trade and Competition Policies: Concordia Discors?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(4), pages 649-64, October.
  10. Gugler, Klaus & Mueller, Dennis C. & Yurtoglu, B. Burcin & Zulehner, Christine, 2003. "The effects of mergers: an international comparison," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 625-653, May.
  11. Kamal Saggi & Halis Murat Yildiz, 2006. "On the International Linkages between Trade and Merger Policies," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(2), pages 212-225, 05.
  12. Nigar Hashimzade & Hassan Khodavaisi & Gareth Myles, 2005. "Tax Principles, Product Differentiation and the Nature of Competition," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 12(6), pages 695-712, November.
  13. Fuest, Clemens, 2005. "Economic integration and tax policy with endogenous foreign firm ownership," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(9-10), pages 1823-1840, September.
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  15. Lommerud, Kjell Erik & Sørgard, Lars & Straume, Odd Rune, 2003. "National versus International Mergers in Unionised Oligopoly," CEPR Discussion Papers 4040, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  16. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2005. "Investment Liberalization - Why a Restrictive Cross-Border Merger Policy can be Counterproductive," Working Paper Series 644, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  17. Huizinga, H.P. & Nielsen, S.B., 1997. "Capital income and profit taxation with foreign ownership of firms," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-73857, Tilburg University.
  18. Haufler, Andreas & Schjelderup, Guttorm & Stähler, Frank, 2005. "Barriers to trade and imperfect competition: The choice of commodity tax base," Munich Reprints in Economics 20414, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  19. Focarelli, Dario & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2001. "The patterns of cross-border bank mergers and shareholdings in OECD countries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2305-2337, December.
  20. Keen, Michael & Lahiri, Sajal & Raimondos-Moller, Pascalis, 2002. "Tax principles and tax harmonization under imperfect competition: A cautionary example," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1559-1568, September.
  21. Lars-Hendrik Röller & Johan Stennek & Frank Verboven, 2000. "Efficiency Gains from Mergers," CIG Working Papers FS IV 00-09, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
  22. Brander, James A., 1995. "Strategic trade policy," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 27, pages 1395-1455 Elsevier.
  23. Lockwood, B., 2000. "Tax Competition and Tax Co-Ordination Under Destination and Origin Principles: A Synthesis," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 567, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  24. Horn, Henrik & Persson, Lars, 2001. "The equilibrium ownership of an international oligopoly," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(2), pages 307-333, April.
  25. Salant, Stephen W & Switzer, Sheldon & Reynolds, Robert J, 1983. "Losses from Horizontal Merger: The Effects of an Exogenous Change in Industry Structure on Cournot-Nash Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(2), pages 185-99, May.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Johannes Becker & Clemens Fuest, 2010. "Taxing Foreign Profits With International Mergers And Acquisitions," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 51(1), pages 171-186, 02.
  2. Becker, Johannes & Fuest, Clemens, 2011. "Source versus residence based taxation with international mergers and acquisitions," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 28-40.
  3. Becker, Johannes & Fuest, Clemens, 2011. "Tax competition -- Greenfield investment versus mergers and acquisitions," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 476-486, September.
  4. Lommerud, Kjell Erik & Meland, Frode & Straume, Odd Rune, 2011. "Mergers and capital flight in unionised oligopolies: Is there scope for a "national champion" policy?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 325-341, April.
  5. Sjögren, Anna, 2010. "Graded children – evidence of longrun consequences of school grades from a nationwide reform," Working Paper Series 2010:7, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
  6. Kjell Lommerud & Trond Olsen & Odd Straume, 2010. "Company Taxation and Merger Incentives in International Oligopoly: on International Policy Coordination with Strategic Trade," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 161-186, June.
  7. Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars & Tåg, Joacim, 2010. "Ownership Efficiency and Tax Advantages: The Case of Private Equity Buyouts," Working Paper Series 841, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.

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