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Demography and Innovative Entrepreneurship

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  • Werner Bönte
  • Oliver Falck
  • Stephan Heblich

Abstract

Demographic change will be one of the major challenges for economic policy in the developed world in the next decades. In this article, we analyze the relationship between age structure and the number of startups. We argue that an individual’s decision to start a business is determined by his or her age and, therefore, that a change in a region’s age distribution affects the expected number of startups in the region. Using German regional data, we estimate a count-data model and find that the expected number of startups is positively influenced by the fraction of individuals of working age—20–64 years old. A more detailed analysis of the working-age distribution suggests that startups in knowledge-based (high-tech) manufacturing industries are affected by changes in this distribution whereas firms in other industries are not. In particular, increases in the fraction of individuals in the 20–30 age range and individuals in the 40–50 age range have a positive effect on the number of high-tech startups.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2007/wp-cesifo-2007-10/cesifo1_wp2115.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2115.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2115

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Keywords: demography; age distribution; entrepreneurship; innovation; region;

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References

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  1. David E. Bloom & David Canning & Günther Fink & Jocelyn E. Finlay, 2007. "Does Age Structure Forecast Economic Growth?," NBER Working Papers 13221, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Evans, David S & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1989. "An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 808-27, August.
  3. Hans-Werner Sinn, 2007. "Can Germany Be Saved?: The Malaise of the World's First Welfare State," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262195585, December.
  4. Paul M Romer, 1999. "Endogenous Technological Change," Levine's Working Paper Archive 2135, David K. Levine.
  5. Zoltan J. Acs & David B. Audretsch & Pontus Braunerhjelm & Bo Carlsson, 2005. "Growth and Entrepreneurship: An Empirial Assessment," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-32, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  6. Audretsch, David B. & Bönte, Werner & Keilbach, Max, 2008. "Entrepreneurship capital and its impact on knowledge diffusion and economic performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 687-698, November.
  7. Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-48, August.
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  10. Bernard M.S. van Praag & Adam S. Booij, 2003. "Risk Aversion and the Subjective Time Discount Rate: A Joint Approach," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 03-018/3, Tinbergen Institute.
  11. Parker,Simon C., 2004. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521828130, October.
  12. Zoltan J. Acs & Catherine Armington, 2004. "The Impact of Geographic Differences in Human Capital on Service Firm Formation Rates," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-15, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  13. P. Mueller, 2006. "Entrepreneurship in the Region: Breeding Ground for Nascent Entrepreneurs?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 41-58, August.
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  15. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-35, June.
  16. Brunow, Stephan & Hirte, Georg, 2005. "Age Structure and Regional Income Growth," Discussion Papers 1/2005, Dresden University of Technology, Faculty of Transportation and Traffic Sciences "Friedrich List", Institute for Transport and Economics.
  17. Fritsch, Michael & Falck, Oliver, 2007. "New business formation by industry over space and time: A multidimensional analysis," Munich Reprints in Economics 20306, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  18. Jerry A. Hausman & Bronwyn H. Hall & Zvi Griliches, 1984. "Econometric Models for Count Data with an Application to the Patents-R&D Relationship," NBER Technical Working Papers 0017, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Dietmar Harhoff, 2008. "Innovation, Entrepreneurship und Demographie," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9(s1), pages 46-72, 05.
  2. Werner, Arndt & Faulenbach, Nicole, 2008. "Das Gründungsverhalten Älterer: Eine empirische Analyse mit den Daten des Gründerpanels des IfM Bonn," IfM-Materialien 184, Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn.
  3. Jan de Kok & Ingrid Verheul & Abdelfatah Ichou, 2010. "New Firm Performance: Does the Age of Founders Affect Employment Creation?," Scales Research Reports H201015, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  4. Katharina Frosch, 2009. "Do only new brooms sweep clean? A review on workforce age and innovation," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2009-005, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.

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