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A Dynamic Analysis of Licensing: The Boomerang Effect and Grant-Back Clauses

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  • Jay Pil Choi

Abstract

This paper develops an incomplete contract model of the licensing relationship to analyze the dynamic effects of licensing on R&D competition in the innovation market and to examine the rationale for often observed grant-back clauses. Of particular concern are how the consideration of future competition distorts the licensing relationship and how the "grant-back" clause can mitigate this distortion. I also evaluate the validity of the casual antitrust argument that grant-back clauses may adversely affect competition because they reduce the licensee's incentive to engage in R&D and thereby limit rivalry in innovation markets.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 188.

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Date of creation: 1999
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_188

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  1. Grossman, Gene M & Shapiro, Carl, 1987. "Dynamic R&D Competition," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(386), pages 372-87, June.
  2. Nancy T. Gallini & Ralph A. Winter, 1985. "Licensing in the Theory of Innovation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(2), pages 237-252, Summer.
  3. Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1987. "R&D Rivalry with Licensing or Imitation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 402-20, June.
  4. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Fershtman, C. & Kamien, M.I., 1991. "Cross Licensing of Complementary Technologies," Papers 1-91, Tel Aviv.
  6. Jay Pil Choi, 1999. "A Dynamic Analysis of Licensing: The "Boomerang" Effect and Grant-Back Clauses," Working Paper Series no16, Institute of Economic Research, Seoul National University.
  7. Green, J.R. & Scotchmer, S., 1993. "On the Division of Profit in Sequential Innovation," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1638, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  8. Grossman, Sanford J & Hart, Oliver D, 1986. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(4), pages 691-719, August.
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  10. Kamien, Morton I., 1992. "Patent licensing," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 11, pages 331-354 Elsevier.
  11. Choi, Jay Pil, 1992. "Cooperative R&D with moral hazard," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 485-491, August.
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  13. Shapiro, Carl, 1985. "Patent Licensing and R&D Rivalry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 25-30, May.
  14. Gallini, Nancy T, 1984. "Deterrence by Market Sharing: A Strategic Incentive for Licensing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(5), pages 931-41, December.
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  17. Kim, Linsu & Dahlman, Carl J., 1992. "Technology policy for industrialization: An integrative framework and Korea's experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 437-452, October.
  18. Nancy T. Gallini & Brian D. Wright, 1990. "Technology Transfer under Asymmetric Information," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 147-160, Spring.
  19. Ted O'Donoghue & Suzanne Scotchmer & Jacques-François Thisse, 1998. "Patent Breadth, Patent Life, and the Pace of Technological Progress," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(1), pages 1-32, 03.
  20. Richard E. Romano, 1994. "Double Moral Hazard and Resale Price Maintenance," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(3), pages 455-466, Autumn.
  21. Suzanne Scotchmer, 1996. "Protecting Early Innovators: Should Second-Generation Products Be Patentable?," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 27(2), pages 322-331, Summer.
  22. Kamien, Morton I & Tauman, Yair, 1986. "Fees versus Royalties and the Private Value of a Patent," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 101(3), pages 471-91, August.
  23. Davies, Howard, 1977. "Technology Transfer through Commercial Transactions," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(2), pages 161-75, December.
  24. Michael L. Katz & Carl Shapiro, 1985. "On the Licensing of Innovations," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(4), pages 504-520, Winter.
  25. Bulow, Jeremy I & Geanakoplos, John D & Klemperer, Paul D, 1985. "Multimarket Oligopoly: Strategic Substitutes and Complements," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(3), pages 488-511, June.
  26. Suzanne Scotchmer, 1991. "Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Cumulative Research and the Patent Law," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 29-41, Winter.
  27. Rockett, Katharine, 1990. "The quality of licensed technology," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 559-574, December.
  28. Sugato Bhattacharyya & Francine Lafontaine, 1995. "Double-Sided Moral Hazard and the Nature of Share Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(4), pages 761-781, Winter.
  29. Reinganum, Jennifer R., . "Innovation and Industry Evolution," Working Papers 426, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
  30. Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick, 1992. "An Incomplete Contracts Approach to Financial Contracting," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(3), pages 473-94, July.
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Cited by:
  1. Jay Pil Choi, 1999. "A Dynamic Analysis of Licensing: The "Boomerang" Effect and Grant-Back Clauses," Working Paper Series no16, Institute of Economic Research, Seoul National University.
  2. Anthony Creane & Hideo Konishi, 2009. "Goldilocks and the Licensing Firm: Choosing a Partner when Rivals are Heterogeneous," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 720, Boston College Department of Economics.
  3. Marie-Laure CABON-DHERSIN & Rim LAHMANDI-AYED, 2011. "R&D Organization: Cooperation or Cross-Licensing?," Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) 2011012, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  4. Chaserant, Camille & Coeurderoy, Régis & Brousseau, Eric, 2007. "The Governance of Contracts: Empirical Evidence on Technology Licensing Agreements," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/7117, Paris Dauphine University.

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