Spreading the Word: Geography, Policy and University Knowledge Diffusion
AbstractUsing new data on citations to university patents and scientific publications, and measures of distance based on Google maps, we study how geography affects university knowledge diffusion. We show that knowledge flows from patents are localized in two respects: they decline sharply with distance up to about 100 miles, and they are strongly constrained by state borders, controlling for distance. While distance also constrains knowledge spillovers from publications, the state border does not. We investigate how the strength of the state border effect varies with university and state characteristics. It is larger for patents from public, as compared to private, universities and this is partly explained by the local development policies of universities. The border effect is larger in states with stronger non-compete laws that affect intra-state labor mobility, and those with greater reliance on in-state educated scientists and engineers. We confirm the impact of non-compete statutes by studying a policy reform in Michigan that introduced such restrictions.
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Date of creation: Aug 2010
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knowledge spillovers; diffusion; geography; university technology transfer; patents; scientific publications;
Other versions of this item:
- Belenzon, Sharon & Schankerman, Mark, 2010. "Spreading the Word: Geography, Policy and University Knowledge Diffusion," CEPR Discussion Papers 8002, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- K41 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Litigation Process
- L24 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Contracting Out; Joint Ventures
- O31 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
- O34 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property Rights
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-02-26 (All new papers)
- NEP-CSE-2011-02-26 (Economics of Strategic Management)
- NEP-EDU-2011-02-26 (Education)
- NEP-IPR-2011-02-26 (Intellectual Property Rights)
- NEP-KNM-2011-02-26 (Knowledge Management & Knowledge Economy)
- NEP-LAW-2011-02-26 (Law & Economics)
- NEP-URE-2011-02-26 (Urban & Real Estate Economics)
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