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Job Flow Dynamics in the Service Sector

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  • Zoltan J Acs
  • Catherine Armington

Abstract

This paper uses the new comprehensive Longitudinal Establishment and Enterprise Microdata at CES to investigate gross and net job flows for 1990 to 1995 for all establishments in the service sector. After examining the recent shifts in the distribution of employment in non-financial services, from single unit firms to multi-unit firms, and from smaller firms to larger ones, we calculate five year gross and net job flow rates for these various types of establishments. This shows that the increasing share of service employment in large firms is not due to higher growth in larger firms. Seeking the dynamics behind the shift of employment to larger firms, we investigate how job flow rates are related to firm and establishment size, using alternative size classification methods. Gross job flow rates vary inversely with the age of establishments in services, as do net growth rates of surviving establishments, even after controlling for size. To help distinguish among the effects of age, firm size, and establishment size on gross and net job flows in services, multivariate regression analysis is used. We find that all gross job flow rates decline with increasing age of establishments when size and industry differences are controlled. Because the job destruction rate falls faster than the creation rate as age increases, net growth rates increase with age for services as a whole. Gross and net job creation also declines with increasing size of establishments, but destruction rates increase with size when controlling for age and industry differences. Firm size differences contribute little or nothing additional when we control for establishment size and age.

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File URL: ftp://ftp2.census.gov/ces/wp/1999/CES-WP-99-14.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 99-14.

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Date of creation: Nov 1999
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Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:99-14

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Keywords: CES; economic; research; micro; data; microdata; chief; economist;

References

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  1. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, December.
  2. Bronwyn H. Hall, 1986. "The Relationship Between Firm Size and Firm Growth in the U.S. Manufacturing Sector," NBER Working Papers 1965, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Dunne, Timothy & Roberts, Mark J & Samuelson, Larry, 1989. "The Growth and Failure of U.S. Manufacturing Plants," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 104(4), pages 671-98, November.
  4. Evans, David S, 1987. "Tests of Alternative Theories of Firm Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(4), pages 657-74, August.
  5. Evans, David S, 1987. "The Relationship between Firm Growth, Size, and Age: Estimates for 100 Manufacturing Industries," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(4), pages 567-81, June.
  6. Carree, Martin & Klomp, Luuk, 1996. " Small Business and Job Creation: A Comment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 317-22, August.
  7. Friedman, Milton, 1992. "Do Old Fallacies Ever Die?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(4), pages 2129-32, December.
  8. Steven J. Davis & John Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1993. "Small Business and Job Creation: Dissecting the Myth and Reassessing theFacts," NBER Working Papers 4492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Zoltan J. Acs & Catherine Armington & Alicia Robb, 1999. "Measures of Job Flow Dynamics in the U.S. Economy," CRIEFF Discussion Papers 9907, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
  10. Dunne, T. & Roberts, M.J. & Samuelson L., 1988. "Plant Turnover And Gross Employment Flows In The U.S. Manufacturing Sector," Papers 9-87-7, Pennsylvania State - Department of Economics.
  11. Jovanovic, Boyan, 1982. "Selection and the Evolution of Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 649-70, May.
  12. Jonathan S. Leonard, 1986. "In the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time: The Extent of Frictional and Structural Unemployment," NBER Working Papers 1979, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Boeri, Tito & Cramer, Ulrich, 1992. "Employment growth, incumbents and entrants : Evidence from Germany," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 545-565, December.
  14. Zoltan J Acs & Catherine Armington, 1998. "Longitudinal Establishment And Enterprise Microdata (LEEM) Documentation," Working Papers 98-9, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  15. Konings, Jozef, 1995. "Job Creation and Job Destruction in the UK Manufacturing Sector," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 57(1), pages 5-24, February.
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Cited by:
  1. Zoltan J. Acs & David B. Audretsch, 2005. "Entrepreneurship and Innovation," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-21, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.

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