The Geographic Concentration of New Firm Formation and Human Capital: Evidence from the Cities
AbstractThe role of education and human capital externalities is a key variable in theories of economic growth. However, the mechanism by which these externalities are realized has not been fully investigated. We examine the relationship between area differences in the levels of human capital and subsequent differences in new firm start-up rates. Firm start-ups are usually based on an innovation (in product, process, or market) that derives from utilization of new knowledge. We find that the new firm start-up rates in areas that function as integrated labor and consumer markets (city plus surrounding commuter area) are (1) positively related to the share of adults with college degrees, and also (2) positively related to higher levels of existing establishments in the same industry and area sector. The finding that higher concentrations of existing establishments in the same industry segment were strongly associated with higher startup rates suggests that spillover of relevant knowledge from other local business owners/managers and researchers within each industry contributes to greater innovation and growth in the area.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 03-05.
Date of creation: Feb 2003
Date of revision:
CES; economic; research; micro; data; microdata; chief; economist;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991.
"Growth in Cities,"
NBER Working Papers
3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Zoltan J. Acs & Felix R. FitzRoy & Ian Smith, 1999.
"High-Technology Employment and R&D in Cities: Heterogeneity vs Specialization,"
CRIEFF Discussion Papers
9920, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
- Ian Smith & Zoltan J. Acs & Felix R. FitzRoy, 2002. "High-technology employment and R&D in cities: Heterogeneity vs specialization," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 373-386.
- Lazear, Edward, 2003. "Entrepreneurship," IZA Discussion Papers 760, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Alan Krueger & Jorn-Steffen Pischke, 1997.
"Observations and Conjectures on the U.S. Employment Miracle,"
769, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Alan B. Krueger & Jorn-Steffen Pischke, 1997. "Observations and Conjectures on the U.S. Employment Miracle," NBER Working Papers 6146, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Krueger, A. & Pischke, J.S., 1997. "Observations and Conjectures on the U.S. Employment Miracle," Working papers 97-15, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Rauch James E., 1993.
"Productivity Gains from Geographic Concentration of Human Capital: Evidence from the Cities,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 380-400, November.
- James E. Rauch, 1991. "Productivity Gains From Geographic Concentration of human Capital: Evidence From the Cities," NBER Working Papers 3905, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Krugman, Paul, 1991.
"Increasing Returns and Economic Geography,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-99, June.
- Glaeser, Edward L. & Scheinkman, JoseA. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1995.
"Economic growth in a cross-section of cities,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 117-143, August.
- Edward L. Glaeser & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1995. "Economic Growth in a Cross-Section of Cities," NBER Working Papers 5013, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Glaeser, E.L. & Scheinkman, J.A., 1993. "Economic Growth in a Cross-Section of Cities," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1645, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
- Edward P. Lazear, 2002.
NBER Working Papers
9109, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jovanovic, Boyan & Rob, Rafael, 1989. "The Growth and Diffusion of Knowledge," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 56(4), pages 569-82, October.
- Zoltan J Acs & Catherine Armington, 1998. "Longitudinal Establishment And Enterprise Microdata (LEEM) Documentation," Working Papers 98-9, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Antonio Ciccone & Robert E. Hall, 1995.
"Productivity and the density of economic activity,"
Economics Working Papers
120, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- Geroski, P. A., 1995. "What do we know about entry?," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 421-440, December.
- Catherine Armington & Zoltan Acs, 2002. "The Determinants of Regional Variation in New Firm Formation," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 33-45.
- repec:fth:stanho:e-95-4 is not listed on IDEAS
- Audretsch, David B., 1995. "Innovation, growth and survival," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 441-457, December.
- Arauzo Carod, Josep Maria & Teruel Carrizosa, Mercedes, 2004. "A territorial approach to firm entry: The effect of city size," Working Papers 2072/1777, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
- Braunerhjelm, Pontus & Borgman, Benny, 2006. "Agglomeration, Diversity and Regional Growth," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 71, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- R. Jason Faberman, 2003. "Job Flows and Establishment Characteristics: Variations Across U.S. Metropolitan Areas," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2003-609, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- BOONE, Christophe & BROUWER, Aleid & JACOBS, Jan & VAN WITTELOOSTUIJN, Arjen, 2009.
"Religious pluralism and organizational diversity: An empirical test for the city of Zwolle, the Netherlands, 1851-1914,"
ACED Working Papers
2009002, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
- BOONE, Christophe & BROUWER, Aleid & JACOBS, Jan & VAN WITTELOOSTUIJN, Arjen, 2009. "Religious pluralism and organizational diversity: An empirical test for the city of Zwolle, the Netherlands, 1851-1914," Working Papers 2009003, University of Antwerp, Faculty of Applied Economics.
- Mendoza, Jorge Eduardo, 2003.
"Efectos de la aglomeración y los encadenamientos industriales en el patrón de crecimiento manufacturero en México
[Manufacturing specialization and urban aglommeration in the largest cities of M," MPRA Paper 2854, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2003.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Fariha Kamal).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.