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Interactions, Neighborhood Selection, and Housing Demand

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  • Yannis M Ioannides
  • Jeffrey E Zabel

Abstract

This paper contributes to the growing literature that identifies and measures the impact of social context on individual economic behavior. We develop a model of housing demand with neighborhood e®ects and neighborhood choice. Modelling neighborhood choice is of fundamental importance in estimating and understanding endogenous and exogenous neighborhood effects. That is, to obtain unbiased estimates of neighborhood effects, it is necessary to control for non-random sorting into neighborhoods. Estimation of the model exploits a unique data set of household data that has been augmented with contextual information at two di®erent levels (“scales”) of aggregation. One is at the neighborhood cluster level, of about ten neighbors, with the data coming from a special sample of the American Housing Survey. A second level is the census tract to which these dwelling units belong. Tract-level data are available in the Summary Tape Files of the decennial Census data. We merge these two data sets by gaining access to confidential data of the U.S. Bureau of the Census. We overcome some limitations of these data by implementing some significant methodological advances in estimating discrete choice models. Our results for the neighborhood choice model indicate that individuals prefer to live near others like themselves. This can perpetuate income inequality since those with the best opportunities at economic success will cluster together. The results for the housing demand equation are similar to those in our earlier work [Ioannides and Zabel (2000] where we find evidence of significant endogenous and contextual neighborhood effects.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 02-19.

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Date of creation: Aug 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:02-19

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Keywords: CES; economic; research; micro; data; microdata; chief; economist;

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  1. Rapaport, Carol, 1997. "Housing Demand and Community Choice: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 243-260, September.
  2. Yannis M. Ioannides, 1999. "Residential Neighborhood Effects," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 9912, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  3. Henderson, J. Vernon & Ioannides, Yannis M., 1989. "Dynamic aspects of consumer decisions in housing markets," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 212-230, September.
  4. William A. Brock & Steven N. Durlauf, 2000. "Interactions-Based Models," Working Papers 00-05-028, Santa Fe Institute.
  5. Lawrence F. Katz & Jeffrey R. Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2000. "Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early Results of a Randomized Mobility Experiment," NBER Working Papers 7973, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Edward L. Glaeser & Jose Scheinkman, 2000. "Non-Market Interactions," NBER Working Papers 8053, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. McFadden, Daniel L., 1984. "Econometric analysis of qualitative response models," Handbook of Econometrics, in: Z. Griliches† & M. D. Intriligator (ed.), Handbook of Econometrics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 24, pages 1395-1457 Elsevier.
  8. George J. Borjas, 1997. "To Ghetto or Not to Ghetto: Ethnicity and Residential Segregation," NBER Working Papers 6176, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Daniel McFadden, 1977. "Modelling the Choice of Residential Location," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 477, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  10. Dennis Epple & Holger Sieg, 1999. "Estimating Equilibrium Models of Local Jurisdictions," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(4), pages 645-681, August.
  11. Mills, Edwin S. & Simenauer, Ronald, 1996. "New Hedonic Estimates of Regional Constant Quality House Prices," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 209-215, March.
  12. Thomas J. Nechyba & Robert P. Strauss, 1997. "Community Choice and Local Public Services: A Discrete Choice Approach," NBER Working Papers 5966, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Yannis Ioannides, 2006. "Empirics of Social Interactions," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0611, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  14. Kiel, Katherine A & Zabel, Jeffrey E, 1997. "Evaluating the Usefulness of the American Housing Survey for Creating House Price Indices," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(1-2), pages 189-202, Jan.-Marc.
  15. Quigley, John M., 1985. "Consumer choice of dwelling, neighborhood and public services," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 41-63, February.
  16. Goodman, Allen C., 1988. "An econometric model of housing price, permanent income, tenure choice, and housing demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 327-353, May.
  17. Olsen, Edgar O., 1987. "The demand and supply of housing service: A critical survey of the empirical literature," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: E. S. Mills (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 25, pages 989-1022 Elsevier.
  18. Sieg, Holger & Smith, V. Kerry & Banzhaf, H. Spencer & Walsh, Randy, 2002. "Interjurisdictional housing prices in locational equilibrium," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 131-153, July.
  19. Manski, C.F., 1991. "Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: the Reflection Problem," Working papers 9127, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  20. Yannis M. Ioannides & Jeffrey E. Zabel, 2000. "Neighborhood Effects and Housing Demand," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0012, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  21. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416.
  22. Hardman, Anna & Ioannides, Yannis M., 2004. "Neighbors' income distribution: economic segregation and mixing in US urban neighborhoods," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 368-382, December.
  23. Pollak, Robert A, 1976. "Interdependent Preferences," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 309-20, June.
  24. DiPasquale, Denise & Somerville, C. Tsuriel, 1995. "Do House Price Indices Based on Transacting Units Represent the Entire Stock? Evidence from the American Housing Survey," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 195-229, September.
  25. Dennis Epple & Thomas Romer & Holger Sieg, 2001. "Interjurisdictional Sorting and Majority Rule: An Empirical Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(6), pages 1437-1465, November.
  26. Dubin, Jeffrey A & McFadden, Daniel L, 1984. "An Econometric Analysis of Residential Electric Appliance Holdings and Consumption," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 345-62, March.
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