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The Ethical Challenges and Professional Responses of Travel Demand Forecasters

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  • Brinkman, P. Anthony
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    Abstract

    Thirty years ago scholars first presented convincing evidence that local officialsuse biased travel demand forecasts to justify decisions based on unstated considerations.Since then, a number of researchers have demonstrated convincingly that such forecastsare systematically optimistic–often wildly so–for reasons that cannot be explained solelyby the inherent difficulty of predicting the future. Why do modelers–professional engineers and planners who use quantitative techniques to predict future demand for traveland estimate its potential impact on built and proposed transportation facilities–generatebiased forecasts and otherwise tolerate the misuse of their work? On initial consideration, it is tempting to surmise that corrupt modelers are responsible for biased forecasting.Indeed, corruption is the most common explanation of forecasting bias and tales of mercenary behavior are all too common in the field. Data from in-depth interviews withtwenty-nine travel demand forecasters throughout the United States and Canada, how-2ever, suggest new and different ways to understand the suspect behavior of transportationplanning professionals.Those most likely to introduce bias and invite misuse of travel forecasts assumethat their technical analyses have little, if any, impact on policy making. For many, thisleads to disillusionment and requires responses to cope with feelings of marginalization.Others, untroubled by their apparent lack of influence, are complacent and need ways toavoid the ethical questions of practice. Both types of practitioners circumscribe professional roles and rely on the self-deceptive strategies of evasion and excuse making tomute their own disquieting realities that undermine positive concepts of self. The disillusioned wish not to see that they do not matter and the complacent that they do. Bias andmisuse seem to be the unintentional byproducts of these attitudes.Beyond enhancing the understanding of the systemic failures of travel demandmodeling, this research suggests practicable steps to reform and outlines an agenda forfuture work. Attention to these matters is important, not just to avoid expenditures onprojects and programs that cannot be justified on the basis of sound utilitarian calculations, but also to restore and preserve the credibility of a profession.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt6dv0z95g.

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    Date of creation: 01 Oct 2003
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    Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt6dv0z95g

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    Keywords: Architecture;

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    1. Mackett, Roger L. & Edwards, Marion, 1998. "The impact of new urban public transport systems: will the expectations be met?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 231-245, May.
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    7. Edwards, Marion & Mackett, Roger L, 1996. "Developing new urban public transport systems : An irrational decision-making process," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 225-239, October.
    8. Goetz, Andrew R. & Szyliowicz, Joseph S., 1997. "Revisiting transportation planning and decision making theory: The case of Denver International Airport," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 263-280, July.
    9. A. Meltzer & Peter Ordeshook & Thomas Romer, 1983. "Introduction," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 1-5, January.
    10. Mackie, Peter & Preston, John, 1998. "Twenty-one sources of error and bias in transport project appraisal," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 1-7, January.
    11. Nelson, Robert H, 1987. "The Economics Profession and the Making of Public Policy," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 49-91, March.
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