Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Objective and Subjective Dimensions Of Travel Impedance as Determinants Of Commuting Stress


Author Info

  • Novaco, Raymond W.
  • Stokols, Daniel
  • Milanesi, Louis
Registered author(s):


    The stressful characteristics of commuting constraints are conceptualized in terms of both physical and perceptual conditions of travel impedance. This study develops and operationalizes the concept of subjective impedance, as a complement to our previously developed concept of impedance as a physically defined condition of commuting stress. The stress impacts of high-impedance commuting were examined in a study of 79 employees of two companies in the follow-up testing of a longitudinal study. Subjective impedance was overlapping but not isomorphic with physical impedance, and these two dimensions have differential relationships with health and well-being outcomes. The physical impedance construct received further confirmation in validational analyses and in predicted effects on various illness measures and job satisfaction. The newly constructed subjective impedance index was significantly related to evening home mood, residential satisfaction, and chest pain. Job change was also influenced primarily by commuting satisfaction. The results are discussed within an ecological framework emphasizing inter-domain transfer effects and situational moderators of commuting stress.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL:;origin=repeccitec
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt5jq8164z.

    as in new window
    Date of creation: 01 Jan 1990
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt5jq8164z

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: 109 McLaughlin Hall, Mail Code 1720, Berkeley, CA 94720-1720
    Phone: 510-642-3585
    Fax: 510-643-3955
    Web page:
    More information through EDIRC

    Related research

    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences;


    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Salomon, Ilan, 1997. "Modeling the desire to telecommute: The importance of attitudinal factors in behavioral models," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 35-50, January.
    2. Bart Neuts & Peter Nijkamp & Eveline van Leeuwen, 2013. "Crowding Externalities from Tourist Use of Urban Space," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-146/VIII, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Shoup, Donald C., 1992. "Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4548s6j5, University of California Transportation Center.
    4. Abou-Zeid, Maya & Ben-Akiva, Moshe, 2011. "The effect of social comparisons on commute well-being," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(4), pages 345-361, May.
    5. Shoup, Donald C. & Willson, Richard W., 1992. "Commuting, Congestion and Pollution: The Employer-Paid Parking Connection," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2f0485tp, University of California Transportation Center.
    6. Novaco, Raymond W. & Kliewer, Wendy & Broquet, Alexander, 1991. "Home Environment Consequences of Commute Travel Impedance," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1d5742g7, University of California Transportation Center.
    7. Karlström, Anders & Isacsson, Gunnar, 2009. "Is sick absence related to commuting travel time? - Swedish Evidence Based on the Generalized Propensity Score Estimator," Working Papers 2010:3, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    8. Lars Olsson & Tommy Gärling & Dick Ettema & Margareta Friman & Satoshi Fujii, 2013. "Happiness and Satisfaction with Work Commute," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 111(1), pages 255-263, March.
    9. Georg Gottholmseder & Klaus Nowotny & Gerald J. Pruckner & Engelbert Theurl, 2009. "Stress perception and commuting," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(5), pages 559-576.
    10. Edoardo Marcucci, 1999. "Road Pricing: Old Beliefs, Present Awareness and Future Research Patterns," Working Papers 1999.4, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    11. Richard Wener & Gary Evans & Donald Phillips & Natasha Nadler, 2003. "Running for the 7:45: The effects of public transit improvements on commuter stress," Transportation, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 203-220, May.


    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


    Access and download statistics


    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt5jq8164z. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.