General Equilibrium in a Segmented Market Economy with Convex Transaction Cost: Existence, Efficiency, Commodity and Fiat Money
AbstractThis study derives the monetary structure of transactions, the use of commodity or fiat money, endogenously from transaction costs in a segmented market general equilibrium model. Market segmentation means there are separate budget constraints for each transaction: budgets balance in each transaction separately. Transaction costs imply differing bid and ask (selling and buying) prices. The most liquid instruments are those with the lowest proportionate bid/ask spread in equilibrium. Existence of general equilibrium is demonstrated under conventional assumptions, including convexity of the transaction technology. The structure of payment for purchases in equilibrium results from market segmentation and transaction costs. If a lowest-transaction-cost commodity is available, it becomes the common medium of exchange, commodity money. General equilibrium may not be Pareto efficient, but if a zer-transaction-cost instrument is available as the common medium of exchange then the equilibrium allocation is Pareto efficient. Fiat money is characterized as an otherwise worthless government-issued instrument of low transaction cost acceptable in payment of required taxes. Fiat money equilibrium with positively vlaued fiat money can then be shown to exist.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Economics, UC San Diego in its series University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series with number qt81x2x4zk.
Date of creation: 06 Jan 2002
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0508
Phone: (858) 534-3383
Fax: (858) 534-7040
Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/ucsdecon/
More information through EDIRC
commodity money; fiat money; quasi-equilibrium; general equilibrium; transaction cost;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Joseph M. Ostroy & Ross M. Starr, 1988.
"The Transactions Role of Money,"
UCLA Economics Working Papers
505, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Starr, Ross M., 2001. "Why Is There Money? Endogenous Derivation of "Money" as the Most Liquid Asset: A Class of Examples," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt2rt3k4r7, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
- Hahn, F H, 1971. "Equilibrium with Transaction Costs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 39(3), pages 417-39, May.
- Starrett, David A, 1973. "Inefficiency and the Demand for "Money" in a Sequence Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 437-48, October.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.