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A Complete Solution To The Forward-Bias Puzzle

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  • Pippenger, John
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    Abstract

    A complete solution to the forward-bias puzzle should provide an econometric solution and an economic explanation for that solution. A complete solution should also explain the closely related failure of uncovered interest parity. In addition it should explain some related anomalies. One such anomaly is that variances for changes in exchange rates are over 100 times larger than variances for interest rate differentials and forward premiums. My econometric solution is that the relevant test equations omit two variables that covered interest parity implies should be included. For my data, the missing variables explain the failure of uncovered interest parity and the forward-bias puzzle. The missing variables also explain why the variance for changes in exchange rates is over 100 times larger than the variance for both interest rate differentials and forward premiums. My economic explanation is that, in general, forward rates do not equal expected future spot rates.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara in its series University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series with number qt5gq9z4j0.

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    Date of creation: 24 Jan 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:cdl:ucsbec:qt5gq9z4j0

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    Keywords: exchange rates; forward bias; covered interest parity; uncovered interest parity; arbitrage; Social and Behavioral Sciences;

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    1. Jonathan Kearns, 2007. "Commodity Currencies: Why Are Exchange Rate Futures Biased if Commodity Futures Are Not?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(260), pages 60-73, 03.
    2. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 2001. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 339-412 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Akram, Q. Farooq & Rime, Dagfinn & Sarno, Lucio, 2006. "Arbitrage in the Foreign Exchange Market: Turning on the Microscope," SIFR Research Report Series 42, Institute for Financial Research.
    4. Mark E. Wohar & Nathan S. Balke, 1998. "Nonlinear dynamics and covered interest rate parity," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 535-559.
    5. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric van Wincoop, 2010. "Infrequent Portfolio Decisions: A Solution to the Forward Discount Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(3), pages 870-904, June.
    6. Levent, Korap, 2010. "Does the uncovered interest parity hold in short horizons?," MPRA Paper 20788, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2008:i:42:p:1-17 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Leon, Hyginus & Sarno, Lucio & Valente, Giorgio, 2006. "Nonlinearity in Deviations from Uncovered Interest Parity: An Explanation of the Forward Bias Puzzle," CEPR Discussion Papers 5527, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Faust, Jon & Rogers, John H., 2003. "Monetary policy's role in exchange rate behavior," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(7), pages 1403-1424, October.
    10. Frankel, Jeffrey & Poonawala, Jumana, 2010. "The forward market in emerging currencies: Less biased than in major currencies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 585-598, April.
    11. Arnaud Mehl & Lorenzo Cappiello, 2009. "Uncovered Interest Parity at Long Horizons: Evidence on Emerging Economies ," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(5), pages 1019-1037, November.
    12. Baillie, Richard T. & Kilic, Rehim, 2006. "Do asymmetric and nonlinear adjustments explain the forward premium anomaly?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 22-47, February.
    13. Chaboud, Alain P. & Wright, Jonathan H., 2005. "Uncovered interest parity: it works, but not for long," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 349-362, July.
    14. Stephen E. Haynes & Avik Chakraborty, 2005. "Econometrics of the forward premium puzzle," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2005-18, University of Oregon Economics Department.
    15. Lucio Sarno, 2005. "Viewpoint: Towards a solution to the puzzles in exchange rate economics: where do we stand?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(3), pages 673-708, August.
    16. Sercu, Piet & Vinaimont, Tom, 2006. "The forward bias in the ECU: Peso risks vs. fads and fashions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 2409-2432, August.
    17. Sercu, Piet & Vandebroek, Martina & Wu, Xueping, 2008. "Is the forward bias economically small? Evidence from European rates," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1284-1302, December.
    18. George W. Evans & Avik Chakraborty, 2006. "Can Perpetual Learning Explain the Forward Premium Puzzle?," University of Oregon Economics Department Working Papers 2006-8, University of Oregon Economics Department, revised 20 Aug 2006.
    19. Menzie D. Chinn & Guy Meredith, 2004. "Monetary Policy and Long-Horizon Uncovered Interest Parity," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 51(3), pages 409-430, November.
    20. Bing Han, 2004. "Is the forward premium puzzle universal?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 131-134.
    21. Giorgio Valente & H. L. Leon & Lucio Sarno, 2006. "Nonlinearity in Deviations From Uncovered Interest Parity," IMF Working Papers 06/136, International Monetary Fund.
    22. Sarantis, Nicholas, 2006. "Testing the uncovered interest parity using traded volatility, a time-varying risk premium and heterogeneous expectations," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1168-1186, November.
    23. Hochradl, Markus & Wagner, Christian, 2010. "Trading the forward bias: Are there limits to speculation?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 423-441, April.
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    Cited by:
    1. Sanders S., Chang, 2011. "On the (in)feasibility of covered interest parity as a solution to the forward bias puzzle," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 611-616, October.
    2. Dominique Torre, 2012. "The monetary views of Paul Einzig," Post-Print halshs-00726126, HAL.
    3. Nagayasu, Jun, 2012. "Long-Run Implications of the Covered Interest Rate Parity Condition: Evidence during the Recent Crisis and Non-Crisis Periods," MPRA Paper 41566, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Christian, Müller, 2011. "The forward-bias puzzle: Still unsolved," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 605-610, October.
    5. Kumar, Satish & Trück, Stefan, 2014. "Unbiasedness and risk premiums in the Indian currency futures market," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 13-32.
    6. Pippenger, John, 2013. "The Failure Of Uncovered Interest Parity, Forward Bias And Related Puzzles," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt50n5p8bv, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
    7. Loring, Grace & Lucey, Brian, 2013. "An analysis of forward exchange rate biasedness across developed and developing country currencies: Do observed patterns persist out of sample?," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(C), pages 14-28.
    8. John, Pippenger, 2011. "The solution to the forward-bias puzzle: Reply," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 629-636, October.
    9. Simpson, Marc W. & Grossmann, Axel, 2014. "An examination of the forward prediction error of U.S. dollar exchange rates and how they are related to bid-ask spreads, purchasing power parity disequilibria, and forward premium asymmetry," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 221-238.
    10. Brian Lucey & Grace Loring, 2012. "Forward Exchange Rate Biasedness across Developed and Developing Country Currencies - Do Observed Patterns Persist Out of Sample?Abstract:," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp404, IIIS.
    11. Alan, King, 2011. "A comment on: "The solution to the forward-bias puzzle”," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 623-628, October.

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