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A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

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  • Farrell, Alexander E.
  • Sperling, Dan
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    Abstract

    Executive Order S-1-07, the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) (January 18, 2007), calls for a reduction of at least 10 percent in the carbon intensity of California’s transportation fuels by 2020. It instructed the Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency to coordinate activities between the University of California and various state agencies to develop and propose a draft compliance schedule to meet the 2020 Target. This report is the first of two by the University of California in response. This first study assesses the low-carbon fuels options that might be used to meet the proposed standard, and presents a number of scenarios for mixes of fuels that might meet a 5, 10, and 15 percent standard. The second part of the study, to be released one month later, will examine key policy issues associated with the LCFS. On the basis of a study of a wide range of vehicle fuel options, we find a 10 percent reduction in the carbon intensity of transportation fuels by 2020 attainable, but an ambitious target. With some vehicle and fuel combinations, a reduction of 15 percent may be possible. All of the technical options to reduce GHG emissions from the transportation sector (e.g. biofuel production and electric vehicles) have technical and economic uncertainties that need further evaluation and research, but there are many different options, of which many show great potential to lower the global warming impact of transportation fuels. Many research and development efforts are already underway now to bring these advanced technologies to market. This diversity of low-carbon fuel and vehicle options leads to a simple conclusion that the California Air Resources Board should include the LCFS as an early action measure under AB 32 (Núñez/Pavley), the Global Warming Solutions Act.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis in its series Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series with number qt6j67z9w6.

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    Date of creation: 01 May 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt6j67z9w6

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    Keywords: UCD-ITS-RR-07-07; Engineering;

    References

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    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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    1. Yang, Christopher & Ogden, Joan M, 2007. "Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis qt7p3500g2, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    2. Collantes, Gustavo O, 2007. "Incorporating stakeholders' perspectives into models of new technology diffusion: The case of fuel-cell vehicles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis qt9bm1w968, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    3. Yang, Christopher & Ogden, Joan M, 2007. "Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis qt1804p4vw, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
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    Cited by:
    1. Hankey, Steve & Marshall, Julian D., 2010. "Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 4880-4887, September.
    2. Hoffman, Steven M. & High-Pippert, Angela, 2010. "From private lives to collective action: Recruitment and participation incentives for a community energy program," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(12), pages 7567-7574, December.
    3. Felix Creutzig & Emily McGlynn & Jan Minx & Ottmar Edenhofer, 2010. "Climate policies for road transport revisited (I): Evaluation of the current framework," Working Papers, Department of Climate Change Economics, TU Berlin 1, Department of Climate Change Economics, TU Berlin, revised Dec 2010.
    4. Stephen P. Holland & Jonathan E. Hughes & Christopher R. Knittel, 2009. "Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 106-46, February.
    5. Kammen, Daniel M & Farrell, Alexander E & Plevin, Richard J & Jones, Andrew D & Nemet, Gregory F & Delucchi, Mark A, 2008. "Energy and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis qt3fs897q3, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    6. Kammen, Daniel M. & Farrell, Alexander E. & Plevin, Richard J. & Jones, Andrew D. & Nemet, Gregory F. & Delucchi, Mark A., 2008. "Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings qt7zg2x23t, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
    7. Yang, Christopher, 2013. "Fuel electricity and plug-in electric vehicles in a low carbon fuel standard," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 51-62.
    8. Rocio A., Diaz-Chavez, 2011. "Assessing biofuels: Aiming for sustainable development or complying with the market?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 5763-5769, October.

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