Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

External Costs of Transport in the U.S

Contents:

Author Info

  • Delucchi, Mark A.
  • McCubbin, Donald R.
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    In this chapter we report estimates of the external costs of transport in the United States.1 Generally, we cover road, rail, air, and water transport; passenger transport and freight transport; and congestion, accident, air pollution, climate change, noise, water pollution, and energy-security costs. However, we were not able to find estimates for all cost categories; in particular, there are fewer estimates for freight transport than for passenger transport, fewer estimates for water transport than for other modes, and fewer estimates of water pollution costs than of other costs. Table 1 summarizes the quality of estimates in each category. In our review, negative externalities are the unaccounted for or unpriced costs of an action. This means that they are the result of individual decisions or actions, such as whether to drive or take a train, or freight something by ship or plane, and are related to the explicit prices and unaccounted-for costs of those choices. Estimates of the external costs of transport may be used for several purposes: as a guide to more economically efficient pricing (given that the optimal price is equal to the private market price plus the estimated marginal external costs); as a guide to allocating research and development funds to mitigate the largest external costs; as part of a cost-benefit analysis of optimal investment in transportation modes and infrastructure; and as part of historical or comparative analyses. As indicated in Table 1, the available estimates do not fully characterize all costs for all modes. Moreover, the wide variations in estimation methods, data, and assumptions among even the “good†estimates confound the comparison of estimates across modes. As a result, we are able to make only general comparisons among modes and general statements about total costs of transport. In the following sections we review recent estimates of external costs by mode in the U. S. In each section we first review methods and issues in the estimation of the cost, and then present estimates of the costs. For each cost category (e.g., congestion delay, accidents) we summarize estimates of the cost by mode and study. Presenting the estimates in this way indicates where more research and analysis is needed.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/13n8v8gq.pdf;origin=repeccitec
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis in its series Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series with number qt13n8v8gq.

    as in new window
    Length:
    Date of creation: 01 Jan 2010
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt13n8v8gq

    Contact details of provider:
    Postal: 2028 Academic Surge, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616
    Phone: (530) 752-6548
    Email:
    Web page: http://www.escholarship.org/repec/itsdavis/
    More information through EDIRC

    Related research

    Keywords: UCD-ITS-RP-10-10; Engineering;

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Jan K. Brueckner, 2002. "Internalization of Airport Congestion: A Network Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 756, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Aaron S. Edlin, 1999. "Per-Mile Premiums for Auto Insurance," Law and Economics 9902002, EconWPA.
    3. Andersson, Henrik & Ögren, Mikael, 2006. "Noise Charges in Railway Infrastructure: A Pricing Schedule Based on the Marginal Cost Principle," Working Papers 2006:4, Swedish National Road & Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    4. Calfee, John & Winston, Clifford, 1998. "The value of automobile travel time: implications for congestion policy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 83-102, July.
    5. Forkenbrock, David J., 2001. "Comparison of external costs of rail and truck freight transportation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 321-337, May.
    6. repec:reg:rpubli:282 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. David Levinson & Jean-Michel Mathieu & Adib Kanafani & David Gillen, 1997. "The Full Cost of High-Speed Rail: An Engineering Approach," Working Papers 199705, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
    8. Forkenbrock, David J., 1999. "External costs of intercity truck freight transportation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 33(7-8), pages 505-526.
    9. Wahba, Mohammed & Hope, Chris, 2006. "The marginal impact of carbon dioxide under two scenarios of future emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(17), pages 3305-3316, November.
    10. Ian W. H. Parry & Margaret Walls & Winston Harrington, 2007. "Automobile Externalities and Policies," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 373-399, June.
    11. repec:ucp:bkecon:9781884829987 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Peter Bickel & Rainer Friedrich & Heike Link & Louise Stewart & Chris Nash, 2005. "Introducing Environmental Externalities into Transport Pricing: Measurement and Implications," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(4), pages 389-415, November.
    13. Delucchi, Mark & Murphy, James, 2008. "How large are tax subsidies to motor-vehicle users in the US?," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt3pc3d715, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    14. Nijkamp, Peter & Vindigni, Gabriella & Nunes, Paulo A.L.D., 2008. "Economic valuation of biodiversity: A comparative study," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 217-231, September.
    15. Edlin, Aaron S., 2002. "Per-Mile Premiums for Auto Insurance," Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics, Working Paper Series qt9bn436k9, Berkeley Olin Program in Law & Economics.
    16. Delucchi, Mark A. & Murphy, James & Kim, Jin & McCubbin, Donald R., 1996. "The Cost of Crop Damage Caused by Ozone Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1j6730td, University of California Transportation Center.
    17. Jan K. Brueckner & Ann G. Largey, 2006. "Social Interaction and Urban Sprawl," Working Papers 060707, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics.
    18. repec:reg:wpaper:282 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Muller, Nicholas Z. & Mendelsohn, Robert, 2007. "Measuring the damages of air pollution in the United States," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 1-14, July.
    20. David Pearce, 2003. "The Social Cost of Carbon and its Policy Implications," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 19(3), pages 362-384.
    21. Nils Soguel, 1995. "Costing the traffic barrier effect: A contingent valuation survey," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 6(3), pages 301-308, October.
    22. Small, K.A. & Kazimi, C., 1994. "On the Costs of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicules," Papers 94-95-3, California Irvine - School of Social Sciences.
    23. Donald F. Vitaliano, 1992. "An economic assessment of the social costs of highway salting and the efficiency of substituting a new deicing material," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(3), pages 397-418.
    24. Viscusi, W Kip & Aldy, Joseph E, 2003. " The Value of a Statistical Life: A Critical Review of Market Estimates throughout the World," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 5-76, August.
    25. Gorman, Michael F., 2008. "Evaluating the public investment mix in US freight transportation infrastructure," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 1-14, January.
    26. Delucchi, Mark A., 2007. "Do motor-vehicle users in the US pay their way?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(10), pages 982-1003, December.
    27. Anthoff, David & Hepburn, Cameron & Tol, Richard S.J., 2009. "Equity weighting and the marginal damage costs of climate change," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 836-849, January.
    28. Button, Kenneth J., 1994. "Alternative approaches toward containing transport externalities: An international comparison," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 289-305, July.
    29. Delucchi, Mark & Murphy, James & McCubbin, Donald, 2002. "The Health and Visibility Cost of Air Pollution: A Comparison of Estimation Methods," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt03s2x9xb, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    30. Ozbay, Kaan & Bartin, Bekir & Yanmaz-Tuzel, Ozlem & Berechman, Joseph, 2007. "Alternative methods for estimating full marginal costs of highway transportation," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(8), pages 768-786, October.
    31. Richard Carson & Robert Mitchell & Michael Hanemann & Raymond Kopp & Stanley Presser & Paul Ruud, 2003. "Contingent Valuation and Lost Passive Use: Damages from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 25(3), pages 257-286, July.
    32. Nash, Chris & Sansom, Tom & Still, Ben, 2001. "Modifying transport prices to internalise externalities: evidence from European case studies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 413-431, July.
    33. Edlin, Aaron S., 2002. "Per-Mile Premiums for Auto Insurance," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt6318920c, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    34. Edlin, Aaron S., 2002. "Per-Mile Premiums for Auto Insurance," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3w26w6xp, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    35. Lyons, Glenn & Jain, Juliet & Holley, David, 2007. "The use of travel time by rail passengers in Great Britain," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 107-120, January.
    36. Morrison, Steven A. & Winston, Clifford, 2008. "The effect of FAA expenditures on air travel delays," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 669-678, March.
    37. Brueckner, Jan K, 2002. "Internalization of airport congestion," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 141-147.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Cravioto, Jordi & Yamasue, Eiji & Okumura, Hideyuki & Ishihara, Keiichi N., 2013. "Road transport externalities in Mexico: Estimates and international comparisons," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 63-76.
    2. Bigazzi, Alexander Y. & Figliozzi, Miguel A., 2013. "Marginal costs of freeway traffic congestion with on-road pollution exposure externality," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 12-24.

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cdl:itsdav:qt13n8v8gq. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lisa Schiff).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.