Does Violent Crime Deter Physical Activity?
AbstractCrime has been argued to have important externalities. We investigate the relationship between violent crime and an important type of behaviour: individuals’ participation in their local area through walking and physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people residing in over 320 small areas in England between 2005 and 2011. We show that concerns about personal safety co-move with police recorded violent crime. To identify the causal effect of recorded violent crime on walking and other physical activity we control for individual-level characteristics, non-time varying local authority effects, national time effects and local authority-specific trends. In addition, we exploit a natural experiment that caused a sudden increase in crime – the 2011 England riots – to identify the causal impact of a large exogenous crime shock on physical activity in a triple difference framework. Our results show a substantive deterrent effect of local area violent crime on walking, pointing to important effects of violent crime on non-victims. The adverse effect of an increase in local area violent crime from the 25th to the 75th percentile on walking is equivalent in size to a 6 ° C fall in average minimum temperature.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK in its series The Centre for Market and Public Organisation with number 13/312.
Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2013
Date of revision:
Violent Crime; Walking; Physical Activity; Riots;
Other versions of this item:
- I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Production
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
- R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jacob, Brian A. & Lefgren, Lars & Moretti, Enrico, 2005.
"The Dynamics of Criminal Behavior: Evidence from Weather Shocks,"
Working Paper Series
rwp05-003, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Brian Jacob & Lars Lefgren & Enrico Moretti, 2007. "The Dynamics of Criminal Behavior: Evidence from Weather Shocks," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(3).
- Brian Jacob & Lars Lefgren & Enrico Moretti, 2004. "The Dynamics of Criminal Behavior: Evidence from Weather Shocks," NBER Working Papers 10739, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francesca Cornaglia & Andrew Leigh, 2011.
"Crime and Mental Wellbeing,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp1049, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Cornaglia, Francesca & Feldman, Naomi E. & Leigh, Andrew, 2014. "Crime and Mental Wellbeing," IZA Discussion Papers 8014, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Francesca Cornaglia & Andrew Leigh, 2012. "Crime and mental wellbeing," CentrePiece - The Magazine for Economic Performance 357, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Hamermesh, Daniel S., 1999.
"Crime and the Timing of Work,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 311-330, March.
- Jeffrey R. Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman & Lawrence F. Katz, 2001.
"Bullets Don’t Got No Name: Consequences of Fear in the Ghetto,"
274, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Jeffrey Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman & Lawrence F. Katz, 2001. "Bullets Don't Got No Name: Consequences of Fear in the Ghetto," JCPR Working Papers 225, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Brian Bell & Richard Blundell & John Reenen, 1999.
"Getting the Unemployed Back to Work: The Role of Targeted Wage Subsidies,"
International Tax and Public Finance,
Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 339-360, August.
- Brian Bell & Richard Blundell & John Van Reenen, 1999. "Getting the unemployed back to work: the role of targeted wage subsidies," IFS Working Papers W99/12, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Julie Berry Cullen & Steven D. Levitt, 1996.
"Crime, Urban Flight, and the Consequences for Cities,"
NBER Working Papers
5737, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Julie Berry Cullen & Steven D. Levitt, 1999. "Crime, Urban Flight, And The Consequences For Cities," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(2), pages 159-169, May.
- Ian Ayres & Steven D. Levitt, 1997.
"Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack,"
NBER Working Papers
5928, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ian Ayres & Steven D. Levitt, 1998. "Measuring Positive Externalities From Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis Of Lojack," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 113(1), pages 43-77, February.
- Steve Gibbons, 2004.
"The Costs of Urban Property Crime,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(499), pages F441-F463, November.
- Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Ross, Amanda, 2010.
"Violent crime, entrepreneurship, and cities,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 135-149, January.
- Ellen, Ingrid Gould & O'Regan, Katherine, 2010. "Crime and urban flight revisited: The effect of the 1990s drop in crime on cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 247-259, November.
- Dustmann, Christian & Fasani, Francesco, 2013. "The Effect of Local Area Crime on Mental Health," IZA Discussion Papers 7711, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Robert Metcalfe & Nattavudh Powdthavee & Paul Dolan, 2011. "Destruction and Distress: Using a Quasi‐Experiment to Show the Effects of the September 11 Attacks on Mental Well‐Being in the United Kingdom," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 121(550), pages F81-F103, February.
- Sundquist, Kristina & Theobald, Holger & Yang, Min & Li, Xinjun & Johansson, Sven-Erik & Sundquist, Jan, 2006. "Neighborhood violent crime and unemployment increase the risk of coronary heart disease: A multilevel study in an urban setting," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 62(8), pages 2061-2071, April.
- Braakmann, Nils, 2012. "How do individuals deal with victimization and victimization risk? Longitudinal evidence from Mexico," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 335-344.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.