Information Technology Intensity, Diffusion, and Job Creation
AbstractUsing the detailed Statistics of US Business and the Annual Input-Output accounts, this paper addresses the employment dynamics of establishments of different sizes, in different sectors, and of different intensity of use of information technology hardware, software and IT-services over the time period 2001 to 2009. Findings include (1): IT-using sectors that are above-average in IT-intensity started out being three times more IT-intensive and ended up being more than four-times the IT-intensity as the below-average using sectors. Hence, there is widening dispersion in IT-intensity across sectors in the US economy. (2) IT producers are a small part of the economy, only about 3% of employment. However, IT-software and services establishments have tended to add jobs on net, particularly at smaller establishments (size 1-99 employees). This suggests that IT again is the hot-bed of entrepreneurship. (3) Small IT-intensive service establishments account for only about 5% of overall employment. However, net job creation at these small-IT-intensive using establishments accounted for between 13% and 68% of the economy-wide net job change from 2001 to 2009. Entrepreneurship in these IT-using services appears to be promoted by the availability of IT-software and IT-services themselves. (4) Establishments that use IT-intensively both in the manufacturing and services sectors, expand and contract employment over the business cycle relatively more than non-IT-intensive manufacturing and service establishments. This employment management strategy is more dramatic for manufacturing than for services. (5) Three approaches to quantifying the direct and indirect gains to the US economy of lower IT prices and increased IT-intensity add up to between $810 and $935 billion for the five years considered 2002-2007. Including IT-services such as computer design, yields a ball-park round $1 trillion as reasonable figure for the gain to the US economy of broad-based use of information technology hardware, software and IT-services for the mid-decade 2000s five-year time period.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School in its series Working Papers with number 46.
Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2012
Date of revision:
Information technology; Social surplus; Startups; Small business;
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2012-07-01 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENT-2012-07-01 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-HME-2012-07-01 (Heterodox Microeconomics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Wilson, Daniel J., 2009.
"IT and Beyond: The Contribution of Heterogeneous Capital to Productivity,"
Journal of Business & Economic Statistics,
American Statistical Association, vol. 27, pages 52-70.
- Daniel Wilson, 2004. "IT and Beyond: The Contribution of Heterogenous Capital to Productivity," Working Papers 04-20, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Daniel Wilson, 2004. "IT and beyond: the contribution of heterogeneous capital to productivity," Working Paper Series 2004-13, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
- Nick Bloom & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2007.
"Americans Do I.T. Better: US Multinationals and the Productivity Miracle,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0788, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Nicholas Bloom & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2012. "Americans Do IT Better: US Multinationals and the Productivity Miracle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(1), pages 167-201, February.
- Nick Bloom & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2007. "Americans do I.T. better: US multinationals and the productivity miracle," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 4555, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Bloom, Nicholas & Sadun, Raffaella & Van Reenen, John, 2007. "Americans Do I.T. Better: US Multinationals and the Productivity Miracle," CEPR Discussion Papers 6291, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Nicholas Bloom & Raffaella Sadun & John Van Reenen, 2007. "Americans Do I.T. Better: US Multinationals and the Productivity Miracle," NBER Working Papers 13085, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sung-Bae Mun & M. Ishaq Nadiri, 2002. "Information Technology Externalities: Empirical Evidence from 42 U.S. Industries," NBER Working Papers 9272, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bayoumi, Tamim & Haacker, Markus, 2002.
"It's Not What You Make, It's How You Use IT: Measuring the Welfare Benefits of the IT Revolution Across Countries,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
3555, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Tamim Bayoumi & Markus Haacker, 2002. "Its Not What You Make, Its How You Use IT: Measuring the Welfare Benefits of the IT Revolution Across Countries," CEP Discussion Papers dp0548, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Tamim Bayoumi & Maarkus Haacker, 2002. "It's not what you make, it's how you use IT: measuring the welfare benefits of the IT revolution across countries," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 20066, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Benjamin R. Mandel & Marshall B. Reinsdorf & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2013.
"Effects of Terms of Trade Gains and Tariff Changes on the Measurement of US Productivity Growth,"
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,
American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 59-93, February.
- Robert C. Feenstra & Benjamin R. Mandel & Marshall B. Reinsdorf & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2009. "Effects of Terms of Trade Gains and Tariff Changes on the Measurement of U.S. Productivity Growth," NBER Working Papers 15592, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- van Ark, Bart, 1998. "Productivity," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 171-174, June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Leslie Yancich).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.